APUSH Unit 5 Test

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  1. Abraham Lincoln
    President of the United States who assumed office shortly after the first southern states secede
  2. Jefferson Davis
    Confederate leader from Mississippi
  3. William Seward
    Lincoln's Secretary of State (opposed to Lincoln) who urged Lincoln to delay the E.P. until a major Union victory, denied Confederacy diplomatic recognition
  4. Salmon Chase
    Lincoln's Treasury Secretary (opposed to Lincoln) who proposes a national banking system (Congress approves)
  5. Gideon Welles
    Lincoln's Navy Secretary who originally opposed the Anaconda Plan but later implemented it very well; clashes often with Chase and Stanton
  6. Edwin Stanton
    Lincoln's Secretary of War, prosecuted traitors and issued orders to arrest any disloyal persons, later locks himself in his office to prevent removal by President Johnson
  7. Ulysses Grant
    became key general in the Union forces after proving himself by in Tennessee by capturing Forts Henry and Donelson (nearly lost at Shiloh Church), favored the "total war" strategy
  8. William Sherman
    Union general who leads the "March to the Sea" from TN to Atlanta, destroys a wide area of land
  9. George McClellan
    replaced McDowell as leader of Union forces, good organizer but not a good fighter, only moved toward Richmond (and lost) when Lincoln forced him to
  10. Stonewall Jackson
    Confederate general who built his name by brave fighting at Bull Run
  11. Robert E. Lee
    main general of the Confederacy from Virginia who believed that in order to win the war he would have to win in the North, hesistant to leave the Union at first
  12. Fort Sumter
    installation in the Charleston, SC, harbor which was beseiged by the Confederacy (led by Beauregard) to start the war
  13. Bull Run (site of two battles)
    location of the first real battle of the war as Union troops (led by McDowell) marched toward Richmond from Wash., DC - also known as Manassas Creek
  14. Antietam
    first battle fought on Union soil, draw in tactical terms, though Lincoln feels compelled to release the EC afterwards
  15. Chancellorsville
    battle in which the Confederacy wins despite having a force half of the Union's, Stonewall Jackson killed, Joseph Hooker (Union general) questioned (fired before Gettysburg)
  16. Vicksburg
    decisive Union victory (by Grant) in Mississippi, helps divide the South into two, day after Gettysburg
  17. Chattanooga
    Grant/Union victory in Tennessee that opens the way for General Sherman to make his way into the Deep South
  18. Sherman's March to the Sea
    William Sherman's devastating "total war" between Atlanta and Savannah
  19. Appotmattox Courthouse
    location in Virginia of the final battle of the war, where Confed. General Lee surrenders to Union General Grant
  20. Henri Jomini
    military strategist who developed the "rush" technique of warfare, highly deadly and many Civil War generals use
  21. Anaconda Plan
    strategy proposed by General Winfield Scott which would cut off the South's sea ports and use the Mississippi River to divide the South in two, as well as cut off supplies
  22. Plains Indians
    migrant group of Natives who roam across wide areas in search of buffalo, violent in resistance to whites
  23. Populist Party
    short-lived political group that represented Southern cotton farmers and Plains wheat farmers over big business
  24. Gettysburg
    battle in Pennsylvania (Lee believes he has to win in the North), Pickett's Charge (Confed.) fails, Lincoln angered by Gen. Meade (replaced by Grant) not finishing Confed. off, Vicksburg in West follows three days later
  25. Cotton
    cash crop the South believed would generate funds and foreign support, enabling them to have a chance at winning the war
  26. Women's role in the Civil War
  27. Charles Sumner
    Senator (R-MA) who led the Radical Republican movement, defeated Andrew Johnson and inspired Congressional reconstruction
  28. Preston Brooks
    Representative (D-SC) who supported slavery strongly and beat Sen. Sumner on the floor of the Senate with a cane
  29. Buffalo
    motivating factor for the Indian tribes of the Great Plains to be in constant migration and US gov't wants to stop the Indians from moving
  30. 2nd Great Removal
    movement of Native Americans from the Southern areas to the Oklahoma Territory
  31. Tenancy
    credit system where farmers promise to sell to a merchant in exchange for supplies (on credit), possible to come out ahead
  32. Sharecropping
    farmers who get supplies (on credit) and promise half of profits to the landowner, the other half was usually to pay back the supplies
  33. States' Rights Philosophy
  34. Redemption
    Democratic takeback of the Southern governments in 1870
  35. Williams v. Mississippi
    SC case which allows states to charge poll taxes and administer literacy tests
  36. Homestead Act
    law that grants families 160 acres for five years residency (or $1.25 after 6 months)
  37. Andrew Johnson
    Democratic President who rejects the 14th Amendment and Radical Reconstruction, nearly impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act but saved by Sen. Edmund Ross
  38. Ex Parte Merryman
    ruling by Taney that only Congress can suspend habeas corpus
  39. Roger Taney
    Supreme Court Chief Justice who attempts to stop President Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus
  40. Deflation
    food (ex. corn, wheat) prices in the post-war period drop dramatically due to a supply that is far too much for what the market needs
  41. Dawes Act
    sets a path to discrimate against Native Indians by giving Natives 160 acres of land if they agreed to leave the reservation (or be forced off), it was believed this would cause Natives to adopt a settle, agricultural lifestyle
  42. Munn v. Illinois
    SC case that upholds a state's right to regulatory bodies
  43. Emancipation Proclamation
    Lincoln's decree that frees all slaves in Confed.-controlled areas (not border states) and also allows blacks into the Union Army
  44. Freedmen's Bureau
    government agency that rationed food, supported the homeless, maintained medical facilities and helped blacks get jobs and settle contracts (which normally favor whites)
  45. Vagrant (Vagrancy Act)
    law allowing unemployed blacks to be jailed, fined or hired out (also regulations about manners and contract-breaking)
  46. Tenure of Office Act
    law limiting the President's appointment/removal powers, used by Congress to protect Sec'y. Stanton
  47. National Farmer's Alliance
    agriculture group that develops the Ocala Platform
  48. Henry Grady
    vocal spokesman of the "New South" who urged diversification of crops and smaller farms
  49. Ocala Platform
    plan developed by the National Farmers' Alliance that including the direct election of Senators and a reduction in the tariff, also desired was a nat'l bank controlled by the fed. gov't
  50. 13th Amendment
    prohibits slavery in the United States
  51. 14th Amendment
    defines equal citizenship, representation based on all voters, no Confed.'s allowed to hold office, and prohibits Confed. claims of damages; readmission to the Union based on ratification
  52. 15th Amendment
    prohibits the denial of the vote because of race or previous servitude (not sex)
  53. Compromise of 1877
    allows for Hayes (R) to win the election and blacks to be respected in exchange for a withdrawal of all troops from the South and the construction of a Southern continental railroad
  54. Force Acts
    three laws (including the KKK Act) allowing for the President to protect voters from violence and fraud
  55. Rutherford B. Hayes
    Republican who won the electoral college in 1876 and enacted moderate reforms
  56. The New South
    movement for the South to diversify from "King Cotton" and adopt smaller farms
  57. Omaha Platform
    Populist Party's plan which reflected the views of the Knights of Labor and the National Farmers' Alliance
  58. Copperheads
    Democrats who opposed the Civil War and preferred a peace settlement with the Confederacy
  59. Republican Party
  60. Debt Peonage
    system in which manual laborers in the South are tied to their land by accumulating debts through their failures in sharecropping and tenancy, a form of slavery
  61. Burke Act
    allows Sec'y of the Interior to grant Indians full title to their land and citizenship before the twenty-five years described in the Dawes Act
  62. Wabash v. Illinois
    SC decision to reverse Munn v. Illinois, making state regulatory bodies unconstitutional
  63. Booker T. Washington
    black reformer who advocated moderate self-help and accepted the lowly position of blacks ("Atlanta Compromise"), founder of the Tuskeegee Institute, favorite of white entrepreneurs
  64. W.E.B. duBois
    first black person to obtain a Ph.D. from Harvard who argued blacks must lead the liberation struggle in the USA and Africa, correctly predicted "the color line" would be the defining issue of the 20th Century, strong opponent of B.T. Washington, positive in regard to the Freedmens' Bureau
  65. Radical Republicans
  66. Mississippi Plan
    Democratic strategy of forming militias to incite riots and justify the killing of blacks; during elections, voter intimidation to vote Democratic
  67. Knights of Labor
    incredibly widespread union that crumbled under racial and class tensions
  68. Southern Democrats
  69. Plessy v. Ferguson
    SC case that establishes "separate but equal" facilities don't violate 14th Amendment
  70. Granger Laws
    misnomered legislation that sets maximum rates for grain elevators and railroads in IL, IA, WI, MN
  71. Atlanta Compromise
    Booker T. Washington's acceptance of the lower social status of blacks in favor of cooperation, economic self help and Purtian values
  72. Waving the Bloody Shirt
    Rep. Butler (R-MA) waives a falsely bloody shirt to show a carpetbagger injured by the KKK, Southerners use it to prove the 'false' accusations by the North
  73. KKK Act
    legislation that makes secret organizations using coercion to deprive others of voting rights illegal
  74. Whiskey Ring
    scheme in which tax revenues were siphoned off to corrupted government officials
  75. Dorothea Dix
    Superintendent of Army Nurses who later helped improve asylums
  76. Southern Farmers' Alliance
    advocated for the needs of Southern farmers by sending lecturers all across the South and Plains, supported cooperatives and the regulation of big business as well as the establishment of a nat'l banking system and more paper money
  77. Pap Singleton
    black leader who believed blacks could never succeed in the white-dominated South, encouraged the development of Kansas for blacks and African colonies
  78. Black Codes
    laws enacted by Southern state gov'ts (following elections of 1870) to restrict the rights of blacks (ex. intermarriage, alcohol, etc.)
  79. Jim Crow Laws
    legalized informal segregation in public settings (schools/railroads first, then libraries, restaurants, parks, etc.)
  80. Ghost Dance
    ritual promised to destroy white people by natural disaster by Paiute prophet Wovoka
  81. Interstate Commerce Commission
    regulative body set up by the Interstate Commerce Act (following Wabash v. Illinois, state regulation ruled unconstitutional) which can prosecute lawbreakers and regulate some interstate commerce (like a "reasonable" railroad rate)
  82. Winfield Scott
    developed the Anaconda Plan despite being very ill, ultimately resigned to McClellan in 1861
  83. Ratio of Silver to Gold
  84. The Alabama
    raider ship that attacked Northern merchant vessels
  85. Reconstruction
  86. Orville Babcock
    Army engineer who lated served as an assistant to President Grant, involved in both the Whiskey Ring and attempt to corner the gold market (1869)
  87. Ten percent plan
    Presidet Lincoln's version of Reconstruction where 10% of each Confed. state had to swear alliegiance to the Union, accept emancipation, elect a state gov't and abolish slavery forever (LA, TN, AS use this method of re-entry)
  88. Wade-Davis Bill
    strict Radical Republican plan to readmit states to the Union by forcing state legislators in Confederate states to take an ironclad oath, passes Congress but vetoed by Lincoln
  89. Radical Reconstruction
  90. Jay Gould & Jim Fiske
    two corrupt financiers who cornered the gold market resulting in the Black Friday of 1869
  91. Course of the Civil War
  92. Nature of the Union
    stronger union of states with power nat'l gov't
  93. Nature of the Confederacy
    loose collection of states with weak central government
  94. Native Americans during the Civil War
  95. Results of the Civil War
  96. Nature of Reconstruction
  97. Wounded Knee
    massacre in which about 300 Sioux tribespeople are killed by Colonel James Forsyth and the US 7th Cavalry division, last battle of American Indian war
  98. Republican Party policies
  99. Samuel J. Tilden
    Democratic nominee for President in 1876 who had brought down Boss Tweed as a civil reformer, wins popular vote, loses electoral college controversially
  100. Plains farmers
    prefer controlled spaces (barbed wire) for crops and resent intrusions by cattle
  101. Cattle ranchers
    need wide open spaces of land for cows grazing
  102. Ida B. Wells (Barnett)
    first female editor of a major newspaper who launched an antilynching campaign in Memphis
Card Set:
APUSH Unit 5 Test
2012-12-06 04:17:55

Chapters 15-17
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