Endocrine system

Card Set Information

Author:
rwilliams144
ID:
186994
Filename:
Endocrine system
Updated:
2012-12-05 22:09:21
Tags:
body structure
Folders:

Description:
endocrine system
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user rwilliams144 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. overall function of endocrine system
    • metabolism
    • growth and development
    • reproduction
    • homeostasis
  2. components 
    hormones- chemicals secreted by endocrine glands
  3. Glands
    organs of endocrine system
  4. endocrine glands
    • ductless
    • secrete chemicals(hormones) into intracellular space
    • diffuse into blood-- target cells/tissues
  5. exocrine glands
    • secrete substances into ducts that empty onto surfaces or into cavities
    • sudoriferous
    •  eccrine-sweat
    •  apocrine
    • sebaceous
    • saliva glands
  6. location of endocrine glands
    • cranial
    • necks
    • ab cavity
    • medistinum
  7. mechanisms of hormone action-- protein hormones
    • non steroid hormones
    • 1st messenger(open lock)
    •  bind to receptors on the target cell membrane (lock and key) mechanism triggers
    • 2nd messenger(inside cell)
    •  enter nucleus and acts on DNA
    •  changes cell's activities
  8. steroid hormones
    • fats- fatty 
    • lipid soluble
    • pass thru cell membrane to nucleus 
    • bind to receptors within the target cell
    • influence cell activity by acting on DNA
    • causes formation of a new protein
    • aldosterone, corisol, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, androsone
  9. regulation of hormone secretion controlled by homeostatic feedback
    • negative feedback
    •  mechanism that reverse the direction of a change
    • positive feedback
    •  mechanism amplify physiological change
    •  blood clot
    •  child birth
  10. if gland is unable to respond to feedback mechanism
    • hyposecretion
    • hypersecretion
  11. prostaglandins
    • powerful substances found in a wide cariety of body tissues
    • produced in a tissue and diffuse only a short distance to act on cells in that tissue or neighboring tissue
    •  produced close to site of action
    • effects of prostagmandins
    •  immune system and inflammation- vasodilation and increased capillart permeability
    •  relaxation of smooth muscle
    •  circulatory system- platlet aggregation
    •  GI- protect lining of GI tract
    •  reproductive- uterine contractions
    •  sensitization of nerve cells to pain
  12. prostaglandin inhibitors
    • anti-inflammatory agents prevent the synthesis of prostaglandins at the site of inflammation
    • effect
    •  decrease inflammation
    •  decrease pain
    • commin agents
    •  NSAIDS
    •  ASA
    • prostaglandin analogs- induce labor
  13. pituitary gland- cranial cavity-location
    sella turcia of sphenoid bone
  14. pituitary stalk
    attached to hypothalmus
  15. Parts of pit gland- anterior
    • adenohypohysis
    • structure- endocrine gland
  16. posterior pit gland
    • neurohypophysis
    • structure more closely related to nervous system.
  17. anterior pit
    • tropic hormones- stimulate another endocrine gland
    •  thyroid stimulating hormane- TSH
    •   stimulates growth and secretion of thyroid gland
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    •  stimulates growth of adrenal cortex
    •  stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids
  18. gonadotrophins
    • stimulate the gonads
    •  FSH- ovarian follicle to mature
    •   seminiferous tubules to frow sperm
    • LH- 
    •  ovulation
    •  testosterone production by interstitial cells
  19. Growth Hormone- functions
    • accelerated protein anabolism
    • accelerate fat catabolism
    • slows glucose catabolism
    •  increase blood glucose levels
    •  hyperglycemia
  20. abnormal functions of GH
    • gigantism- hyper secretion during childhood
    • dwarfism- hypo secretion during childhood
    • acromegaly
    •  hyper secretion in adulthood
    •  enlargement of bones in
    •   hands
    •   feet
    •   jaws
    •   cheek
  21. prolactin- lactogenic hormone
    • stimulates breast development during pregnancy
    • stimulates production of breast milk
    • abnormal secretion- prolactinemia
    •  women- galactorrhea- lactation not associated with childbirth or nursing
    •  men- 
    •   erectile dysfunction
    •   decreased libido
    •  cause- pit tumor
  22. post pit gland ADH
    • stores and releases hormones produced by hypothalmus
    • release of hormones caused by nervous stim
    •  ADH
    •   accelerates water reabsorption from kidney tubules nack to the blood
    •   decreases urine volume-- concentrates urine
  23. Post pit gland- oxytocin
    • stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract
    • responsible for let down reflex- release of milk into ducts
  24. hypothalmus
    • produces hormones secreted by post pit gland
    •  ADH 
    •  Ocytocin
  25. thyroid gland- location
    below pharnyx, in front and on either side of the trachea.
  26. tyroid hormones
    • throxine- t4
    • thriodothyronine- t3
    • production require iodine
  27. tyroid functions
    • affect all body function that depend on energy
    • affect BMR
    • speed release of energy
  28. tyroid hormone- calcitonin
    • maintains homeostasis of blood calcium levels
    • prevents hypercalcemia
    •  tones down blood calcium
    • decreases blood calcium levels
    • prevents resorption of bone
  29. Parathytoid gland-
    • works with calcitonin
    • 4 of them
    • hormone
    • Function
    •  prevent hypocalcemia
    •  increase calcium levels
    •  increase resorption of bone
  30. Pancreas
    • exocrine gland- digestive function
    • endocrine gland- diffuse into blood carry into tissues
  31. Pancreatic islets- islets of langerhans
    • Hormones and functions
    •  Glucagon
    •   alpha cells
    •   increas BG levels
    •   glycogen converted to glucose
    •  Insulin
    •   beta cells
    •   decrease BG levels
    •   facilitates passage of glucose into cells
  32. Ovaries
    • Ovarian follicles- estrogen
    •  secondary sex characteristics
    • Corpus luteum
    •  maintains pregnancy
  33. Testes
    • semiferous tubules- produce sperm
    • interstitial cells- testosterone
    •  secondeary sex characteristics
  34. Placenta- temp endocrine gland
    • Hormones
    •  estrogen
    •  pregesterone
    • Function
    •  maintains pregnancy
  35. Human Gonadotropin (HCG)
    • maintains corpus luteum
    •  estorgen
    •  pregesteronee- lining of uterus maintained 
    • produced by chorion of fetus- outer membrane of embryo
  36. Thymus- t-cells
    • Hormone thymosin
    • immunity
    • mediastinum
  37. Pineal gland
    • roof of 3rd ventricle of the brain
    • secretory activity releated to light
    •  received input from optic nerve
    • 3rd eye
  38. Melatonin
    • produced by pineal gland
    • regulates internal hormone
    •  induce sleep
    • regulates onset of puberty
    • inhinits ovary activity- affects menstrual cycle
  39. clinical implications of melatocin
    • SAD
    • treatment of jetlag
    • fibrotic with age
  40. ANH
    • secreted by atrial wall of heart
    • stimulates sodium loss from kidneys
    • decrease BP
    • antagonist to aldosterone
    •  only hormone stimulate loss of sodium
    •  
  41. Adrenal Glands location
    curve over tops of kidneys
  42. parts of adrenal gland
    • adrenal cortex- outer layer
    •  mineralocorticoids- salt
    •  glucocorticoids- sugar
    •  androgens- sex
    • adrenal medulla- inner layer
    •  catchecholamines
  43. Layers of adrenal cortex
    • zona glomerulous
    •  outrmost
    •  secretes mineralocorticoids
    • zona fasciculata
    •  middle later
    •  secrets gluco
    • zona reticulairis
    •  inner layer
    •  secretes androgens
  44. mineralocorticoids
    • affects body minerals
    •  increase blood sodium
    •  decrease blood K
    • affects fluid volume
  45. Glucocorticoids or Corticosteroids- Cortisol
    • maintains BG levels
    •  increase blood glucose levels
    •   gluconeogenesis- new glucose formed from fats and proteins
    •   spares glucose for use by brain
    •   WAKE UP
    • Anti-infmmatory effect 
    • Increase gastric acid and pepsin secretion
    • Necessary for full functioning of the catecholamines and the general adaptation response
    •  enchance effect of 
    •   epinephrine
    •   norepinephrine- vasoconstriction
  46. Androgens
    • sex hormones
    • masculinazion in males
    • estorgen in women- postmenapausal
  47. pharmocological dose of glucocorticoids
    • replacement therapy- reduce symptoms
    • anti-allergy/anti-imflammatory
    • respiratory disorders
    • malignacies
    • cerebral edema
    • organ transplant
    • ulcerative colitis
    • eye disease
  48. Adverse reaction of glucocorticoids
    • delayed wound healing
    • increase infection
    • fluid imbalance- hypokalemia, edema, hypertention
    • muscle wasting
    • osteoporosis
    • mood changes
    • cataracts, glacoma
    • thrombosi
    • hypercholesterolemia
    • athersclerosis
    • belly fat
    •  moon face
    •  buffalo hump
    • trucal obesity
    • increase BG- diabtetes
    • adreogentic effect- beard mustache(women)
    • acne
    • bruising
    • gastritis and peptic ulcer
    • adrenocortical insuffiency
  49. Adrenal Cortex clinical conditions- 
    • cushing syndrome
    •  increased secretion of hormones of the adrenal cortex
    •  prolonged adm of high doses of corticosteroids
    •   hypertention, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, immunosuppression, osteoporosis
    • addison's disease
    •  decreased function of adrenal glands
    •   hypotension, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, intolerence to stressors. 
  50. Corticosteroids
    Glucocorticoids
    pharmacological implications
    • uses
    •   replacement therapy- physiological doses
    •   reduce symptoms- pharmacologic dose
    •    reduce imflammations and allergic responses
    •    malignancies
    •    ulcerative colitis
    •    eye disease
    •    respirtaory disorders
  51. steroid withdrawal syndrome
    • adrenocortical insufficiency
    •  supression of anterior pit gland- ACTH
    •  may occur 1 week after pharm dose
    •  suppression of acth may last up to 2 years. should be monitored 1-2 years after high dosage or long term treatment
  52. symptoms of steroid withdrawal syndrome
    • anorexia
    • nausea
    • lethargy
    • headache
    • joint pain
    • fever
    • wt loss
    • hypotension
    • rebound of condition being treated
  53. pt teaching of steroids
    • take with food, milk or antacids
    • total dose should be taken first thing in the AM
    • nicotine raises blood levels-- avoid smoking
    • alcohol enhances effect
    • do not stop abruptly- taper dose as ordered
    • side effects
  54. Adrenal Medulla 
    • structure-- sympathetic ganglia
    • hormones- catchecholamines
    •  epinephrine- heart rate
    •  nor ephinephrine- potent vasoconstrictor
    • Function
    •  intensify and prolong effects of sympathetic nervous system
    •  allows for stress response or general adaption syndrome
  55. general adaptation syndrome
    • based on work of Hans Selye
    • adaptation is the process of responding to change
    • describes both the physiological and psychological responses to change
    •  callista roy
  56. Stress
    • response produced by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening, or damaging to homeostasis. 
    • stress occurs when the equilibrium of the body is disturbed
    • non specific response
    •  regardless of stimulus
    •  response is the same
  57. Universal stressors- Internal- physiological stressors
    • heat or cold
    • microbial invasion(flu, mrsa)
    • trauma/surg
    • hemorrhage
  58. individual stressors- psychological
    • day to day problems
    • major life events
    • maybe be positive- wedding, bday party
  59. Sources of stress
    • Internal
    •  originate within an ind
    • External
    •  outside ind
    • Developmental
    •  occurs at predictable times throughout life
    •   school, marriage, retirement
    • Situational 
    •  unpredictable
    • Anticipatory
    •  worry
  60. response to sress depends on 
    • perception
    • degree of health and fitness
    • previous life experiences and personality
    • social support system- culture
    • personal coping mechanisms

    *stimulus must be perceived as a stressor in order for stess response to be excited*
  61. common pt stressors
    • hospital gown
    • sharing a room
    • change in sleep
    • excessive light/noise
    • wait
    • uncertainty
  62. sense of control over stressors help decrease stress response
    • Pre op teaching
    • PCA pump
  63. stages of sress response
    • alarm
    • resistance
    • exhaustion
  64. Alarm
    • fight or flight
    • sympathetic response
    • local adaption
    •  inflammaion
  65. resistance
    • continuing endocrine activity allows body to adapt or compensate for stressor
    •  cortisol secretion is increased
    •   counters inflamm response
    •   glucose for energy
    • epinephrine and norephinephrine secretion continues
    •  maintains fluid volume- spares sodium
    •  vasocontriction
    •  maintains BP
  66. adaptation
    • body compensates for stressor
    • body limits stressor to a small area
    • Mal-adaption
    •  prolonged resistance can lead to a sress related disorder
    •   hypertension
    •   infection/delayed wd healing
    •   stress ulcers
  67. exhaustion
    • prolonged exposure to stressor 
    • depletes body's resources
    • result
    •  rest- the body enters a stage where the primary goal is conversation of energy in order to survive
    • damage to vital body systems
    •  circulatory system
    •  immune system
    • DEATH
  68. Adaptation VS Exhaustion
    • adaptive energy resources of ind- heartyness of pt
    • severity of stressor
    • external adaptive resources- medical interventions
  69. General Adaptation syndrome
    a
    activates a neuroendocrine mechanism
  70. neuroendocrine mechanisms component
    • CNS
    • hypothalmus
    • SNS
    • Ant pit gland
    • post pit gland
    • adrenal cortex
    • adrenal medulla
  71. Effective stress response
    • increase glucose available for energy
    • increased oxy uptake
    • increased excretion of carbon dioxide
    • blood volume and cardiac output maintained-- BP maintained
    • increased mental alertness
  72. Prolonged stress response
    • increased BP
    • decreased immunity
    • increased gastic secretion- sress ulcers
    • arrhythmias
    • backpain
    • decreaed libido
    • fertility problems
    • headache
    • asthma

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview