AP Chem Study Guide
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What are intramolecular forces?
- -Ionic / Covalent Bonds
- -The bond holding the atoms together
What are intermolecular forces?
-Forces between molecules
What are the strong / weak intermolecular forces?
- Strong: (Intra)
- Weak (Inter)
- -dipole dipole
- -london dispersion
What are key aspects of hydrogen bonding?
- Only with F, O, N
- -three because of high electronegetivity
- -small enough to get close
- -especially strong dipole-dipole forces
- -affects boiling point
What are some key aspects about london dispersion forces?
- -non-polar molecules that exert forces Br2
- -bigger molecule higher melting point
What does more electrons mean?
Describe some thoughts about boiling point?
- -LD forces weak
- -ionic is super strong to break apart
What are the properties of liqueds due to? (compared to gas, forces,enviroment)
- Internal attraction (intermolecular forces)
- -surface tension, meniscus
- -stronger intermolecular forces cause each of these to increase
- -high disorder, fewer holes than gas
The phase of a liqued is determined by what?
- -Temperature (heat on ice)
- -Strength in Intermolecular forces
What are the two major types of solids?
- Crystalline: salt, locked in some kind of lattice
- Amorphus: much disorder, frozen in place (glass, plastic)
How do metals bond?
Electron Sea model: a regular array of metals in a "sea" of electrons
What kind of solid would Silicon and Carbon be part of?
- Covalent Network
- -sp3 diamond stronger than ionic bond (tetrahedral)
What are some aspects of molecular solids?
- -strength depend on size -> larger molecules are mor polarizeable
- -intermolecular forces weaker than bonds
- -stronger forces = higher melting melting and freezing points
What are some aspects of Ionic solids?
- -huge melting and boiling points
- -salts, brittle
- -easily brocken
- -not good conductors
What type of solid will each substance form?
- -covalent network
What is vapor pressure?
The pressure above a liqued at equilibrium
What is vaporization? (high vapor pressure name)
- Liqued to a gas at boiling point.
- -high vaporization = volatile
What is evaporation?
- The change of liqued to gas below the boiling point.
- -energy over comes intermolecular forces
What is heat of vaportization?
Energy required to vaporize 1 mole at 1 atm.
Vapor Pressure inc / dec?
- Inc.- with temperature
- Dec.- with intermolecular forces (big molecules = more polarizable, better holding power on molecules)
- -polar = inc in temp
What is condensing?
Gas to Liqued
- Liqued to gas
- -1 atm pressure
- -vapor cannot be liquefied
- -at critical temp
- -critical temp / pressure
Solid to Gas
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