Fireground Support Ch. 9-13

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Fireground Support Ch. 9-13
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2012-12-07 22:26:22
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  1. Most fire departments attack a high rise fire from the floor 
                   the fire and concentrate relief crews and spare equipment in Staging,                                  the fire floor.
    Most fire departments attack a high rise fire from the floor Below the Fire the fire and concentrate relief crews and spare equipment in Staging, 2 Floors Below the fire floor. 
  2. A fully equipped F/F, especially one wearing a full tool belt or carrying spare air tanks, can exceed          lbs. 
    A fully equipped F/F, especially one wearing a full tool belt or carrying spare air tanks, can exceed 300 lbs
  3. An elevator control malfunction could automatically call the elevator car to the fire floor, or a power failure could strand the elevator car above the fire or between floors. Therefore, those assigned to                           should bring all elevators to the ground floor and lock them there. 
    An elevator control malfunction could automatically call the elevator car to the fire floor, or a power failure could strand the elevator car above the fire or between floors. Therefore, those assigned to Lobby Control should bring all elevators to the ground floor and lock them there. 
  4. Fire behavior in high-rise buildings is most affected by 
                           and                            
    Fire behavior in high-rise buildings is most affected by Stack Effect and Mushrooming
  5.                          is the natural vertical movement of heat and smoke (convection) in tall structures. *If it is hotter inside than outside, airflow will be inward at the bottom and outward at the top. 
    Stack Effect is the natural vertical movement of heat and smoke (convection) in tall structures. *If it is hotter inside than outside, airflow will be inward at the bottom and outward at the top. 
  6.                          of smoke and fire gases can create a highly toxic atmosphere many floors above the fire, even when there is little heat. 
    Stratification of smoke and fire gases can create a highly toxic atmosphere many floors above the fire, even when there is little heat. 
  7. PPV blowers positioned at street level are effective up to about          floors. Above          floors, additional blowers or smoke ejectors may be needed, or both. 
    PPV blowers positioned at street level are effective up to about 22 floors. Above 22 floors, additional blowers or smoke ejectors may be needed, or both. 
  8. When an aerial device is able to reach the roof of a high-rise building, using it is the                    method of getting to the roof because it is the safest, fastest, and most direct route. 
    When an aerial device is able to reach the roof of a high-rise building, using it is the Preferred method of getting to the roof because it is the safest, fastest, and most direct route. 
  9. Elevators: As mentioned earlier, any elevator that serves the fire floor(s) or above should not be used by occupants or F/F's unless the officer in charge                                    determines that it is safe to do so. 
    Elevators: As mentioned earlier, any elevator that serves the fire floor(s) or above should not be used by occupants or F/F's unless the officer in charge On the Fire Floor determines that it is safe to do so. 
  10. Somewhere near the vertical midpoint of of a closed compartment, there is a point called the                                 
                      where the interior pressure is equal to the pressure outside the space. 
    Somewhere near the vertical midpoint of of a closed compartment, there is a point called the Neutral Pressure Plane where the interior pressure is equal to the pressure outside the space. 
  11. Assuming that the structure is closed, with little or no gases being vented to the atmosphere, a neutral pressure plane exists at the level of ambient atmosperic pressure, usually between        % and       % of the building height. 
    Assuming that the structure is closed, with little or no gases being vented to the atmosphere, a neutral pressure plane exists at the level of ambient atmosperic pressure, usually between 35% and 50% of the building height. 
  12. The closer that ventilation takes place to the neutral pressure plane, the            positive or negative the wind will exert. *Wind can raise or lower the neutral pressure plane, which can have a major effect on ventilation operations. 
    The closer that ventilation takes place to the neutral pressure plane, the Less positive or negative effect the wind will exert. *Wind can raise or lower the neutral pressure plane, which can have a major effect on ventilation operations. 
  13. When ventilating the fire floor on a high rise building, 
                          ventilation should be done only when there is no other choice. 
    When ventilating the fire floor on a high rise building, Horizontal ventilation should be done only when there is no other choice. 
  14. Ventilating above the fire floor will be most effective if the process is started at the                                 
    Ventilating above the fire floor will be most effective if the process is started at the Top of the Building.  
  15. Automatic roof vents are intended to limit the spread of fire within a building by releasing heat and smoke to the outside before the fire mushrooms throughout the building. Therefore the are placed at the                                   . When the fusible link reaches its designed temperature, it separates, allowing the vent covers to open. 
    Automatic roof vents are intended to limit the spread of fire within a building by releasing heat and smoke to the outside before the fire mushrooms throughout the building. Therefore the are placed at the Highest Point on the Roof. When the fusible link reaches its designed temperature, it separates, allowing the vent covers to open. 
  16. Curtain Boards (aka -                             ) are fire resistive half-walls that extend down from the underside of the roof. They generally extend a distance equal to at least       % of the vertical distance from the floor to the roof, but not lower than       feet above the floor. 
    Curtain Boards (aka - Draft Curtains) are fire resistive half-walls that extend down from the underside of the roof. They generally extend a distance equal to at least 20% of the vertical distance from the floor to the roof, but not lower than 10 feet above the floor. 
  17. The function of curtain boards is to                                       
                   
     by confining it to a relatively small area directly over its source. They also concentrate heat and smoke directly under automatic roof vents and automatic sprinklers which speeds activation. 
    The function of curtain boards is to Limit the Horizontal Spread of Heat and Smoke by confining it to a relatively small area directly over its source. They also concentrate heat and smoke directly under automatic roof vents and automatic sprinklers which speeds activation. 
  18. At working structure fires,                                     is one of the best ways to protect the F/F's working in and around the building, and any occupants who may be trapped inside. 
    At working structure fires, Securing a burning buildings Utilities is one of the best ways to protect the F/F's working in and around the building, and any occupants who may be trapped inside. 
  19. The two most common gas control situations with which F/F's are faced are those in                       and those in which there is                              
    The two most common gas control situations with which F/F's are faced are those in Structure Fire and those in which there is a Gas leak without fire
  20.                                      into a burning building is one of the most common gas control operations that F/F's perform. 
    Stopping the Flow of Natural Gas into a burning building is one of the most common gas control operations that F/F's perform. 
  21. In many industrial properties, gas meters are located in underground              or in              rooms inside the buildings. 
    In many industrial properties, gas meters are located in Underground Vaults or in Utility Rooms inside the buildings. 
  22. During a working structure fire in a multi-occupancy building, the meter for the affected occupancy can sometimes be identified by the fact that the                            
                                    
    than those on the other meters. 
    During a working structure fire in a multi-occupancy building, the meter for the affected occupancy can sometimes be identified by the fact that the Needle on the Dial is moving at a much Faster Rate than those on the other meters. 
  23. If a large horizontal tank in involved in fire and especially if LPG is venting from the tank, F/F's should not attempt to control the leak, but should setup master streams to cool the tank. The ERG recommends pulling back                          
    If a large horizontal tank in involved in fire and especially if LPG is venting from the tank, F/F's should not attempt to control the leak, but should setup master streams to cool the tank. The ERG recommends pulling back One Half Mile
  24. Heating oil (aka              oil or              oil) - is sometimes stored in underground tanks connected to the heating appliances by copper or aluminum tubing. In multi-family residential buildings there can be as much as          gallonsof fuel oil located in the basement.
    Heating oil (aka Bunker oil or #6 Fuel oil) - is sometimes stored in underground tanks connected to the heating appliances by copper or aluminum tubing. In multi-family residential buildings there can be as much as 500 gallons of fuel oil located in the basement. 
  25. Heating Oil tanks are mounted on                       aboveground to increase gravity pressure. 
    Heating Oil tanks are mounted on Stanchions aboveground to increase gravity pressure. 
  26. To facilitate the use of fuel oil, the oil is atomized into a fine spray. Any of these systems may be dangerous to F/F's, considering the oil pressure required for maximum efficiency ranges from        to           PSI. The                     is the most dangerous phenomenon associated with atomized fuel oil. 
    To facilitate the use of fuel oil, the oil is atomized into a fine spray. Any of these systems may be dangerous to F/F's, considering the oil pressure required for maximum efficiency ranges from 600 to 1,000 PSI. The White Ghost is the most dangerous phenomenon associated with atomized fuel oil. 
  27. The ERG recommends staying from         to         feet from the source for both LPG and Natural gas leaks. *monitoring for combustible gas begins at the apparatus. 
    The ERG recommends staying from 160 to 330 feet from the source for both LPG and Natural gas leaks. *monitoring for combustible gas begins at the apparatus.
  28. One of the best ways to assess a flammable gas leak is by using                                      . Natural gas readings should be taken at waist level (lighter than air), and LPG readings should be taken closer to the ground. 
    One of the best ways to assess a flammable gas leak is by using Combustible Gas Indicators (CGI) . Natural gas readings should be taken at waist level (lighter than air), and LPG readings should be taken closer to the ground. 
  29. F/F's can take direct action to help mitigate LPG leaks. Using overlapping fog streams, they should advance slowly using the                        to maintain maximum balance. 
    F/F's can take direct action to help mitigate LPG leaks. Using overlapping fog streams, they should advance slowly using the Shuffle Step to maintain maximum balance. 
  30. The two most common emergency situations involving electricity are                          and                                    
    The two most common emergency situations involving electricity are Structure Fires and Downed Electrical Wires
  31. Most single-family residences have only one main electrical panel, located with the                             and main switch. When opening large large, main electrical switches, F/F's should turn their faces away from the switch as they operate the lever arm. 
    Most single-family residences have only one main electrical panel, located with the Electrical Meter and main switch. When opening large large, main electrical switches, F/F's should turn their faces away from the switch as they operate the lever arm. 
  32. In most cases involving downed power lines, F/F's should do nothing more than set up a perimeter and deny entry until OGE arrives. The recommended isolation distance is equal to                       in all directions from a break in the wire or the point of contact with the ground. 
    In most cases involving downed power lines, F/F's should do nothing more than set up a perimeter and deny entry until OGE arrives. The recommended isolation distance is equal to One Full Span in all directions from a break in the wire or the point of contact with the ground. 
  33. Two of the most useful tools for helping F/F's establish the hazard area around a downed power line are                        and Thermal Imagers. 
    Two of the most useful tools for helping F/F's establish the hazard area around a downed power line are Alternating Current Detectors and Thermal Imagers
  34. Alternating Current Detectors can detect unshielded AC current through snow, ice and many solid objects. Under ideal conditions, these devices may be able to detect AC current in a single 120V line from       feet, however if there is wet soil the range may be as little as          
    Alternating Current Detectors can detect unshielded AC current through snow, ice and many solid objects. Under ideal conditions, these devices may be able to detect AC current in a single 120V line from 15 feet, however if there is wet soil the range may be as little as 1 foot
  35. In buildings with basements or cellars, water leaks an go undetected for long periods of time. Often the first indication is when the                                 or the furnace does not respond to commands from the thermostat. 
    In buildings with basements or cellars, water leaks an go undetected for long periods of time. Often the first indication is when the Lights Suddenly Fail or the furnace does not respond to commands from the thermostat. 
  36. Small gas furnaces can usually be controlled by                   
                                  
    . Electric heaters can usually be controlled by                               
    Small gas furnaces can usually be controlled by Shutting off the fuel at the gas meter. Electric heaters can usually be controlled by Unplugging Them
  37. There are two primary lighting systems with which F/F's must be concerned:                      lighting and                      lighting. 
    There are two primary lighting systems with which F/F's must be concerned: Domestic lighting and Emergency lighting. 
  38. The most common conveyance systems that F/F's must control during structure fires are                     and escalators. Escalators present multiple risks: they can promote fire spread, they can carry people into danger, PPE can become tangled in the machinery, and they present a fall hazard. 
    The most common conveyance systems that F/F's must control during structure fires are Elevators and escalators. Escalators present multiple risks: they can promote fire spread, they can carry people into danger, PPE can become tangled in the machinery, and they present a fall hazard. 
  39. Phase 1 Operation-  When the buildings smoke detectors or a key-operated switch in the main elevator lobby activate phase 1 operation, all passenger elevator cars                       
                 
    , usually the main elevator lobby. 
    Phase 1 Operation-  When the buildings smoke detectors or a key-operated switch in the main elevator lobby activate phase 1 operation, all passenger elevator cars Return to the "Designated Level", usually the main elevator lobby. 
  40. Phase II Operation - F/F's insert a key into a three-position switch in the main lobby, turning the switch to "ON". The elevators can then be controlled by inserting the key into the "Firefighters Control" sometimes labeled the                     
                     inside the elevtor. Elevators can only be controlled from the inside at this point. 
    Phase II Operation - F/F's insert a key into a three-position switch in the main lobby, turning the switch to "ON". The elevators can then be controlled by inserting the key into the "Firefighters Control" sometimes labeled the "Firemen's Service" inside the elevtor. Elevators can only be controlled from the inside at this point. 
  41. There are 2 basic types of smoke detectors:
                                     and                                       
    There are 2 basic types of smoke detectors: Photoelectric and Ionization type detectors 
  42. Photoelectric type detectors - a photoelectric smoke detector, sometimes called a                                             detector, uses a photoelectric cell and a light source. When smoke obscures the beam of light, the current is interrupted, and the switch closes. 
    Photoelectric type detectors - a photoelectric smoke detector, sometimes called a Visible Products of Combustion detector, uses a photoelectric cell and a light source. When smoke obscures the beam of light, the current is interrupted, and the switch closes. 
  43. Ionization type detectors - An ionization smoke detector uses a tiny radioactive beta source (usually                     ) to ionize air molecules as they enterthe chamber within the detector. When smoke enters, the current decreases, setting off the alarm. 
    Ionization type detectors - An ionization smoke detector uses a tiny radioactive beta source (usually Americium) to ionize air molecules as they enterthe chamber within the detector. When smoke enters, the current decreases, setting off the alarm. 
  44. Fixed-Temperature Thermostats - the most basic heat detection systems rely on tiny heat sensors called                 installed in the ceilings of the compartment to be protected. Temps are set at        *F in living spaces and       *F in attic spaces. If the set temp is exceeded a bimetallic switch bends. 
    Fixed-Temperature Thermostats - the most basic heat detection systems rely on tiny heat sensors called Thermostats installed in the ceilings of the compartment to be protected. Temps are set at 135*F in living spaces and 200*F in attic spaces. If the set temp is exceeded a bimetallic switch bends. 
  45. Rate of Rise thermostats - have dome shaped chambers with tiny orifices. any increase in ambient temperature causes the air inside to expand. If the rate of rise is greater than        *F in one minute, the amount of pressure in the chamber will bend a metallic diaphragm causing the alarm. 
    Rate of Rise thermostats - have dome shaped chambers with tiny orifices. any increase in ambient temperature causes the air inside to expand. If the rate of rise is greater than 12*F in one minute, the amount of pressure in the chamber will bend a metallic diaphragm causing the alarm. 
  46. There are 3 types of Flame Detectors:                     , and those that use Both. 
    There are 3 types of Flame Detectors: Ultraviolet (UV), Infrared (IR) and those that use Both
  47. Flooding Systems - Flood a closed compartment with a chemical to prevent, control, and extinguish a fire. The three most common in use are:                                         , and 
                        
    Flooding Systems - Flood a closed compartment with a chemical to prevent, control, and extinguish a fire. The three most common in use are: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Halon 1211, and Halon 1301
  48. Statistically, sprinkler systems installed and maintained according to the requirements of applicable NFPA standard are effective in controlling or extinguishing fires in well over 
           % of cases. 
    Statistically, sprinkler systems installed and maintained according to the requirements of applicable NFPA standard are effective in controlling or extinguishing fires in well over   90% of cases. 
  49. Standpipes - 
    Class I - For use by                     , 2 1/2" Valve
    Class II - For use by                      , 1 1/2" Valve
    Class III - Combines the features of Classes 1 & 2
    • Standpipes
    • Class I - For use by Trained F/F's, 2 1/2" Valve
    • Class II - For use by Untrained occupants, 1 1/2" Valve
    • Class III - Combines the features of Classes 1 & 2
  50. CO2 Flooding systems have 2 forms of manual activation. One is a                      that causes the system to flood the compartment after a delay for the pre-discharge alarm to sound. The other is an                           that causes the system to flood the compartment as soon as the valve is opened - there is no pre-discharge alarm.
    CO2 Flooding systems have 2 forms of manual activation. One is a Manual Pull that causes the system to flood the compartment after a delay for the pre-discharge alarm to sound. The other is an Emergency System Dump Valve that causes the system to flood the compartment as soon as the valve is opened - there is no pre-discharge alarm.
  51.                     damage is that produced by the fire.                      damage is that resulting from fighting the fire and/or leaving the property inadequately protected. 
    Primary damage is that produced by the fire. Secondary damage is that resulting from fighting the fire and/or leaving the property inadequately protected. 
  52. A conscientiously applied program of                               can contribute greatly to preventing or reducing primary and secondary loss loss when a fire occurs in a building. 
    A conscientiously applied program of Pre-Incident Planning can contribute greatly to preventing or reducing primary and secondary loss loss when a fire occurs in a building. 
  53. During a structure fire,                      damage can result from forcible entry, fire attack, ventilation, smoke removal, water use and removal, salvage and overhaul. 
    During a structure fire, Secondary damage can result from forcible entry, fire attack, ventilation, smoke removal, water use and removal, salvage and overhaul. 
  54. One of the most important ways that F/F's can limit primary damage in a structure fire is to                                      as quickly and efficiently as possible.
    One of the most important ways that F/F's can limit primary damage in a structure fire is to Extinguish the Fire as quickly and efficiently as possible. *the most important factors in limiting primary damage: Adequate resources, Effective attack, Effective ventilation and Thorough overhaul. 
  55. Another way fireground support personnel can help limit primary damage in a structure fire is by performing a thorough                     . The damage done by hidden fire is still primary damage. 
    Another way fireground support personnel can help limit primary damage in a structure fire is by performing a thorough Overhaul. The damage done by hidden fire is still primary damage. 
  56. Some fire departments use                 to help locate hot spots. 
    Some fire departments use Blowers to help locate hot spots. 
  57. Many departments require a CO reading of less than          parts per million before F/F's are allowed to work inside the compartment without SCBA. 
    Many departments require a CO reading of less than 35 parts per million before F/F's are allowed to work inside the compartment without SCBA. 
  58.                       (CH2CHCHO) - is a strong respiratory irritant that is produced when polyethylene is heated and when items containing cellulose, such as wood and other natural materials, smolder. It is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, herbicides and tear gas. 
    Acrolein (CH2CHCHO) - is a strong respiratory irritant that is produced when polyethylene is heated and when items containing cellulose, such as wood and other natural materials, smolder. It is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, herbicides and tear gas. 
  59.                         (HCI)- is a colorless but very pungent and irritating gas given off in the thermal decomposition of materials containing chlorine such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other plastics
    Hydrogen Chloride (HCI)- is a colorless but very pungent and irritating gas given off in the thermal decomposition of materials containing chlorine such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other plastics
  60.                                       (HCN) - is a colorless gas with a characteristic Almond Odor. 20x more toxic than CO, it is an asphyxiant and can be absorbed through the skin. Produced when natural materials containing nitrogen burn, when Urea burns, and when polyurethane foam burns. Used in electroplating. 
    Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) - is a colorless gas with a characteristic Almond Odor. 20x more toxic than CO, it is an asphyxiant and can be absorbed through the skin. Produced when natural materials containing nitrogen burn, when Urea burns, and when polyurethane foam burns. Used in electroplating. 
  61.                                (      ) - is a colorless, odorless, and nonflammable gas produced in free-burning fires. While it is non-toxic,         can asphyxiate by excluding oxygen from a confined space. It is also a respiratory accelerant that can increase the intake of other toxic gases. 
    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - is a colorless, odorless, and nonflammable gas produced in free-burning fires. While it is non-toxic, CO2 can asphyxiate by excluding oxygen from a confined space. It is also a respiratory accelerant that can increase the intake of other toxic gases. 
  62.                               (     and        ) - are two dangerous and toxic gases liberated in the combustion of pyroxylin plastics. The vapors and smoke from the                          have a reddish brown or copper color
    Nitrogen Oxides (NO and NO2) - are two dangerous and toxic gases liberated in the combustion of pyroxylin plastics. The vapors and smoke from the oxides of nitrogen have a reddish brown or copper color
  63.                   (COCI2) - is a highly toxic, colorless gas with a disagreeable odor of Musty Hay. it may be produced when refridgerants, such as Freon, contact a flame.
    Phosgene (COCI2) - is a highly toxic, colorless gas with a disagreeable odor of Musty Hay. it may be produced when refridgerants, such as Freon, contact a flame.
  64. One of the most effective means of secondary loss control is by performing careful                               . Which reduces primary damage by initiating fire attack sooner, and can also reduce secondary loss if                                           is avoided. 
    One of the most effective means of secondary loss control is by performing careful Forcible Entry. Which reduces primary damage by initiating fire attack sooner, and can also reduce secondary loss if Unnecessary Damage is avoided. 
  65. Perhaps THE most effective means of reducing secondary loss in a structure fire is by performing           and                salvage operations. In general, F/F's should start salvage operations on the floor                     as soon as fire attack is ready to begin. But, in some cases, it may be prudent to delay the fire attack to allow some salvage work to be done. 
    Perhaps THE most effective means of reducing secondary loss in a structure fire is by performing Rapid and Effective salvage operations. In general, F/F's should start salvage operations on the floor Below the Fire as soon as fire attack is ready to begin. But, in some cases, it may be prudent to delay the fire attack to allow some salvage work to be done. 
  66. During overhaul, any valuables such as cash, bank books, credit cards, stock certificates, or professional licenses or certificates that are found should be turned over to the 
                                    (if one has been established) or to its equivalent, the IC, or law enforcement. 
    During overhaul, any valuables such as cash, bank books, credit cards, stock certificates, or professional licenses or certificates that are found should be turned over to the Occupant Services Sector (OSS)(if one has been established) or to its equivalent, the IC, or law enforcement. 
  67. The two major considerations related to fireground resources are their                      and their                      
    The two major considerations related to fireground resources are their Availability and their Capability
  68. In general, the on scene resources can be used in any of 3 operational modes. These modes are                                   
         
      and                       .
    In general, the on scene resources can be used in any of 3 operational modes. These modes are Offensive, Defensive and Rescue
  69. To initiate a Rescue Mode, the IC must transmit an                   
                             . This alerts all units to cease transmitting because critical information is to follow. 
    To initiate a Rescue Mode, the IC must transmit an Emergency Traffic Message. This alerts all units to cease transmitting because critical information is to follow. 
  70. When assuming initial command of the incident, the first-arriving officer can use either of three possible command modes:                                         , or                       
    When assuming initial command of the incident, the first-arriving officer can use either of three possible command modes: Investigation, Fast Attack or Command
  71. Fast attack mode should not last for more than                minutes. 
    In general, an initial attack structure fire is probably not beyond what is sommonly called a                             fire. 
    • Fast attack mode should not last for more than A Few minutes.
    •  In general, an initial attack structure fire is probably not beyond what is sommonly called a Room and Contents fire
  72.               Attack - When a fire burns past the original operational period. May be 12 hours past the initial alarm. 
              Fires - Those involving large scale building-to-building spread up to a city block. 
                       - Huge fires that cross streets, highways or rivers. May engulf entire neighborhoods. 
    • Extended Attack - When a fire burns past the original operational period. May be 12 hours past the initial alarm.           Group Fires - Those involving large scale building-to-building spread up to a city block.
    • Conflagration- Huge fires that cross streets, highways or rivers. May engulf entire neighborhoods. 

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