Personal Trainer: Ch. 2- Exercise Physiology
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the study of the cellular functions in the human body during and after exercise
Basic units of life
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
- The way energy is expressed
- -It is the currency or "pocket change" your body will use to pay for "work" performed in the body.
What is the formula that produces ENERGY?
- ATP~~~ADP + Pi = ENERGY
- (adenosine diphosphate) + (inorganic phosphate)
-fuels the contraction of skeletal muscle
What are the three energy systems?
ATP/Creatine-Phosphate system (Anaerobic, The phosphagen system)
Glycolysis (Anaerobic, glycolytic system)
What is the purpose of the three energy systems?
Is to phosphorylate ADP to produce ATP
do not require oxygen to function
What is the ATP/Creatine-Phosphate system used for?
is the body's immediate energy system used during physical work that lasts 1-10 seconds.
When immediate energy is needed for rapid, high-intensity activities, the body breaks dow nthe ATP to fuel
How is ATP replenished?
When another high enery compond, Creatine-Phosphate (CP) located in the muscle cells in limited amounts, can combine with ADP and is used immediately to replenish ATP stores.
The body cells can store about four to six times more CP than ATP; CP is the predominant source of immediate energy. It's primary use is for high intensity: weight lifting, sprints, tennis.
What is the main source of ATP production?
glucose, which is stored in muscles and the liver as glycogen.
What is the build up of anaerobic ATP production?
What is the aerobic pathway to produce ATP called?
Aerobic Oxidation or the Mitochondrial Respiration System
~which is the catabolism of glucose and fatty acids by way of the Kreb's Cycle and Electron Transport System in the mitochondria cells.
What are the two comopnents of muscles that define its movement properties?
- Active contractile component - produces tension through the siding of mircroscopic fibers, which shortens muscles
- Passive non-contractile component - consists of tendons, connective tissue and ligaments.
What are the 3 types of connective tissue that encompasses muscles?
- endomysium - smallest level surrounding the muscle fiber is a connective sheath which serves to electronically insulate the muscle fiber from other muscle fibers
- Sarcolemma- muscle fiber cell memebrane that enables each muscle fiber to be actively stimulated without stimulating neighboring fibers. p.2-4
Makes up the complete muscles as we see it
continuous with the tendon
designates how the muscle is shaped
the smallest unit of a muscle cell and is composed of two myofilaments
A myosin filament made up of hundreds
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