Advanced Normal Language Final - Terminology

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Advanced Normal Language Final - Terminology
2012-12-04 12:10:41
morphemes language term

Advanced Normal Language Final - Terminology
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  1. adjective
    • a word that describes, identifies, or qualifies a noun, pronoun, or gerund by specifying
    • size, color, number, or other attributes.
  2. account
    A type of NARRATIVE; the narrato spontaneously relates something he or she has experienced.
  3. adverb
    a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs by specifying time, manner, location, degree, number, or quality.
  4. article
    indefinite a or an, or the definite the.
  5. audible pausese
    Verbal hesitation phenomena such as um, oh, ah, hmm, or the like.
  6. auxiliary verb
    a verb that has no independent existence in a sentence except to support the main verb (a "helping verb")
  7. catentive
    an early semiauxiliary verb form (gonna, wanna, hafta) without an auxiliary that results from a syllabic reduction of the main verb and the infinitive verb form.
  8. centering of events
    A strategy used by perschool childre nfor producing a story, where parts of a story cluster around a core idea.
  9. chaining of events
    A strtegy for poducing a story such that events are presented in temporal or logical order.
  10. clause
    a group of words that includes a subject and a predicate; main clauses can stand alone, dependent clauses are incomplete and must be ised with main clauses to express related ideas.
  11. cohesion
    Linguistic features that connect units of a NARRATIVE and achieve coherence.
  12. cohesive markers
    Words that signal listeners to search outside the sentence to find or compoete their meaning; when meaning is completed, a COHESIVE TIE has been made.  Include REFERENCE MARKERS, CONJUNCTIVE MARKERS, LEXICAL MARKERS, substitution, and ellipsis.
  13. cohesive tie
    Refers to binding sentences together to cohere into a unit to form a whole; the linguistic devices that tie the sentences together are COHESIVE MARKERS.
  14. communication unit
    Used to segment language samples; includes each INDEPENDENT CLAUSE with its modifiers, can be used for both oral and written samples.
  15. complext sentence
    a sentence that conatains more than one verb phrase, the additional verb phrase may be a full sentence proposition or assumed within a clause.
  16. conjunction
    a word used to join words, phrases, or clauses of equivalent value (and, but, for, or, nor, either, neither, yet, so, whereas, etc.)
  17. conjunctive marker
    Connective words that specify relations between Cus semantically, not grammatically, including conjunctive adverbs that connect meaning across CUs (and, also, or, but, however)
  18. contingent speech
    speaking turns that are linked to preceding turns by topic, and/or other conversational conventions ("I like dogs", "I do too.")
  19. contractivle auxiliary
    contractible form of the verb be as an auxiliary ("She is riding a horse.")
  20. contractible copula
    contractible form of the verb be as the main verb ("She is hungry")
  21. conversation map
    A type of DISCOURSE consisting of talk by two or more partners with short turn-taking exchanges.
  22. conversational discourse
    A type of DISCOURSE consisting of talk by two or more partners with short turn-taking exchanges.
  23. copula
    a verb typically used as an auxiliary verb that is used as a main verb; the copula is also referred to as a "linking verb" since the copula links the subject of a sentece to the complement ("She is hungry")
  24. deixis
    the process of using the perspective of the speaker as the reference; the used os spatial, temporal, or interpersonal features to mark relationships.
  25. demonstrative pronoun
    a p.noun that points out the person or object referred to, either as an adjective to the subject of the sentence ("That ball is big").
  26. dependent clause
    A CLAUSE that is embedded into an utterance as a noun, adjective, or adverb clause. (see also subordinate clause)
  27. discourse
    • a unit of language that is larger than the utterance, encompassing at the very least adjacency pairs and including several speaker changes that are linked by a common topic.
    • OR
    • A stretch of language longer than a short sentence; genres include CONVERSATIONAL, NARRTAIVE, AND EXPOSITORY DISCOURSE.
  28. dynamic assessment
    Also called LEARNING POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT. Assessment that is not static; requires exploration and documentation of how easily a student can modify performance, given support of various kinds and degrees.  Dynamic assessment procedures, rather than NORM-REFERENCED COMPAIRSONS, may be best suited for students from nonmainstream or nonlinterate backgrounds.
  29. elicited speech
    speech that is drawn out by imitation or through fill in the blank.
  30. elicit
    A method for obtaining NARRATIVE samples that are not spontaneous occurrences; NARRATIVE samples may be elicited through use of verbal instructions sometimes accompanied by visual stimuli such as pictures or objects props.
  31. ellipsis
    a conversational convention that shortens an utterance based on information from a preceding utterance ("Who likes raisins?" "I do.")
  32. embedded clause
    a clause that is subordinated into a full sentence.
  33. episode
    A story or part of a story that typically consists of SETTING, initiating event, attempt, and consequence.
  34. error unit
    The omission, inappropriate use, or overuse of a language variable.
  35. event cast
    NARRATIVE language that describes ongoing activities or plans for future activities; often heard as children play.
  36. expository discourse
    A typeof DISCOURSE, written or oral, whose purpose is to insturct; includes procedural DISCOURSE, description, persuasion, and others.
  37. false start
    Descirbed as one thype of VERBAL DISRUPTION; a child begins to speak, then revises the attempt and completes the utterance.
  38. formal assessment procedure
    a test, format, or inventory that has been standardized on specific populations of individuals.
  39. functional language
    The transmission and reception of messages containing fact, fiction, or feeling within a community, school, or family/personal setting.
  40. gerund
    A verb form ending in ing that is used as a noun.
  41. gerund clause
    a gerund and its modifiers; can function as the subject of the verb ("Counting sheep puts me to sleep.")
  42. gerund clause
    a gerund and its modifiers; can function as the subject of the verb ("Counting sheep puts me to sleep.")
  43. grammatical morpheme
    a morpheme that adds to the grammatical structure of a word of phrase, including the 14 free and bound morphemes.
  44. hesitation
    Nonlinguistic verbalization - see AUDIBLE PAUSEs, MAZES, or VERBAL DISRUTPTIONS.
  45. high point analysis
    A procedure for analyzing PERSONAL NARRATIVES that includes a 'high point' where evaluative comments are made about what the event meant to the narrator.
  46. illocutionary force
    the intednded inerpretation of an utterance or speech act; the illocutionary force must be combined with a proposition for the speech act to be conveyed.
  47. imitative speech
    speech that repeats all or poart of previous utterances
  48. independent clause
    A clause that can stand alone as grammatically complete
  49. infinitive
    a form of the verb that consisits of to plus a verb, infinitives typically are used as nouns and thus function as subjects or objects of verbs ("To know him is to love him")
  50. infinitive clause
    an infinitive plus its modifiers and subject or object; it may be used as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun.
  51. infinitive clause with subject different from main clause
    an infinitive form of a verb that has a subject that is not the subject of the main verb ("I wanted the train to go chug chug")
  52. informal assessment procedure
    a descriptive analysis procedure based on the techniques used in collecting and interpreting data from the research designs.
  53. insertions
    Words or phrases within a T-unit or CU that are a comment on the language process itself, such as, "I can't remember that word"; may be a characteristic of the speech of children with language disorders.
  54. introducer phase
    Refers to the PHRASES and CLAUSES that introduce a quotation (he said,"   "; Answering briefly "   "; She shouted, "   ")
  55. irregular past tense verb
    form of an irregular verb indicating that an action has already taken place; there is no consistent device for marking the past tense of irregular verbs.
  56. irregular third person singular present tense
    the irregular form of the third person singular form of the present tense of the verb.
  57. joiner
    LINGUISTIC DEBRIS that consists of spacers or fillers including and, and then, or, then, well, so.  They do not function as true conjunctions within the context of a compound or complex sentence.
  58. language comprehension
    the process of understaing language.
  59. language production
    the process of producing language.
  60. lexical markers
    Words associated through vocabulary selection, such as repeated words, synonyms, antonyms, words having part-whole relationships, and words having superordinate-subordinate relationships.
  61. linguistic debris
    Consturcts that do not directly fit into the meaningful context of the sentence: joiners, self-corrections, spontaneous comments/questions, and organizational repetitions.
  62. listener condition
    Refers to whether the person listening to a NARRATIVE has knowledge of its content; when eliciting fictional stories, the child may include more detail and explisit REFERENCES when the listener has not heard the model story or seen the movie.
  63. local norms
    Normative data that are collected and scored using a local population for reference; allows students to be compared with peers from the local environment.
  64. macrostructure
    The global, general properties and organization of a NARRATIVE.
  65. main clause
    A clause that can stand alone as grammatically complete.
  66. maze
    A series of words or unattached fragments that do not constitute a CU and are not necessary to the CU. Sometives used as a general term for verbal disruptions to the flow of speech; maze behavior may include FALSE STARTS, REPETITIONS, word parts, nonlinguistic vocalizations (uh, oh, hmm), and ABANDONED UTTERANCES.
  67. MDCCU
  68. Mean length of CU
    The number of words in the sample divided by the number of CUs; a measure used to quantify growth in the elaboration of language.
  69. MLU
    the average number of morphemes per utterance.
  70. Mean number of dependent clauses
    DEPENDENT CLAUSES only, counted and divided by the total number of Cus in the sample - used to qualtify growth in the elaboration of language.
  71. microstructure
    The local, more specific properties of a NARRATIVE, such as COHESIVE TIES and sentence-level grammar.
  72. modal auxiliary
    an auxiliary verb that carries its own meaning and influences the meaning of the main verb (can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, and would)
  73. morpheme
    the smallest unit of meaning in a language
  74. multiple embeddings
    sentences that contain more than one type of embedding; may include sentences with relative clauses and infinitives or semiauxiliaries
  75. multi-term utterance
    an utt that contains more than one semantic role or grammatical category (agent-action-object)
  76. narrative
    Oral or written DISCOURSE that relates real or fictional events that are temporally sequenced and convey meaning.
  77. narrative level
    Term from Appleby - analysis of stories generated by preschool children; refers to six levels based on the amount of CENTERING and CHAINING OF EVENTS and characters.
  78. NDW
    NUMBER OF DIFFERENT WORDS IN THE FIRST 50 Cus - A general quantitativ emeasure of vocabulary diversity in school-age children's NARRATIVE DISCOURSE samples; a variation of similar measures for CONVERSATIONAL DISCOURSE of preschool children.
  79. Negative sentence
    a sentence that contains no or not within the sentces proposition
  80. noncontingent speech
    speaking turns that are not linked to preceding utterances
  81. noun phrase
    a noun, or a phrase of functioning as a noun, that fulfills the role of subject or object of a verb in a sentence; the only obligatory component of this sentence constituent is a noun or pronoun.
  82. object noun phrase
    a phrase that functions as the object of the verb, or predicate, of a sentence; the form of object noun phrases changes developmentally.
  83. object noun phrase complement
    a part of the predicate, or verb phrase, that serves to complement by stating in a different way the object of the verb or noun phrase.
  84. obligatory context
    grammatical obligation of a structure for meaning to be clear
  85. operational definition
    A definition that specifies the procedure to be followed in measuring a concept; designates some overt behavior that is directly observable and measurable.
  86. organizational repetitions
    LINGUISTIC DEBRIS marked by words, phrases, or clauses expressed and then repeated exactly.
  87. participle
    A verb form used as an adjective.
  88. percentage of failed revisions
    Obtained by identifying all spontaneous REVISION attempts that occur, then identifying all attempts that failed; calculated by dividing the number of failed REVISION attempts by total REVISION attempts, multiplied by 100; a tentative measure of DISCOURSE  disability.
  89. percentage of grammatically correct CU's
    Specific quantiative measure obtained by counting the number of Cus with grammatical error/s; calculated by subtracting this number from the total number of Cus and multiplying by 100; described as an effective measure for distinguishing children who have language disorders.
  90. perfect tenses
    pairs of simple tenses and progressive tenses of verbs indicating that action was, is, or will be completed within a given time.
  91. personal narrative
    A type of NARRATIVE that relates events experienced by (or observed by) the narrator.
  92. phrase
    a group of words that functions as a single part of speech but does not have both a subject and a verb
  93. phrases
    A group of related words that mayhave either a subject or a PREDICATE but not both.
  94. pragmatics
    study of language use independent of language structure; rules and principles that relate the structure of language to its use; a level of linguistic analysis.
  95. predicate
    The part of asentence that contains a single verb, a compound verb, or a verb with auxiliaries and any complements or modifiers; a predicate is always a verb phrase.
  96. predicate of a sentence
    verb phrase of the sentence; the explanation of the action, condition, or effect of the subject of a sentence.
  97. preposition
    a word that shows how a noun or pronoun is related to another word in a sentence; most prepositions are simple and introduce a phrase.
  98. present progressive
    present tense form of a verb with -ing ending indicating ongoing action.
  99. proposition
    conceptual information contained within an utterance or speech act; proposition of a speech act is the speakers meaning
  100. qualitative measures
    Measures that are descriptive in nature, not NORM-REFERENCED  or CRITERION-REFERENCED comparisons; they indicate areas of strength or weakness. Assessment instruments include behavior rating scales and student/teacher interview protocols.
  101. quantitative measures
    Assessment measures used to document a students' initial need or continued need for language intervention; scores often provide NORM-REFERENCED comparisons; stable measures of broad-based behavior (lengthmeasures, vocabulary diversity, or densit of complex grammatical forms).
  102. recount
    One type of NARRATIVE that is prompted; the narrator relates events experienced by self or another using past tense verbs.
  103. reference
    Use of an utterance to designate a particular relationship, object, person, or event; specific to an individual utterance and context.
  104. reference markers
    Words that are interpreted by another source of information including personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and comparative references (same, different, another).
  105. referent
    a word that stands for a concrete thing
  106. Regular past tense of the verb
    indicated that an action has already taken place.
  107. regular third person singular tense
    requires the addition of -s to the verb
  108. relative clause
    a subordinate clause that is introduced by a relative pronoun and sometimes the agrammatical "What"
  109. remote retelling
    NARRATIVES such as telling about a movie or book experienced in the past; such NARRATIVES  are not STORY GENERATIONS for which the narrator creastes the plot, but they require formulation of the movie or book plot without an immediate story model.
  110. repetitions
    An error unit consisting of three or more single identical owrds in the same sentence or consecutive sentences (other than the and a) or two or more repetitions of a phrase or clause in the same sentence or consequtive sentences.
  111. retelling
    One kind of elicited NARRATIVE sample; a model story is told or read, and the student is asked to retell it.
  112. revision
    Also called REPAIR. In oral language, any word, phrase, or utterance that corrects an omission of necessary information from the preceding text or corrects erroneous or ambiguous information.
  113. rote phrase
    A recurring, meaningless phrase observed during CONVERSATIONAL or NARRATIVE DISCOURSE sampling.
  114. rubrics
    Coding systems with short descritions of dimensions or features against which to score a unit of spoken or written text.
  115. SALT
    SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE TRANSCRIPTS; a computerized language analysis program.
  116. scaffold
    A temporary linguistic support that makes language production easier for the child.
  117. school language
    The language typically needed in academic, classroom tasks.
  118. script
    Aso called GENERAL EVENT REPRESENTATION. A type of NARRATIVE DISOCURSE; verbally relating what usually or routinely happens; told in present tense, often with universal you as the subject pronoun.
  119. semantic relation
    a combo of two or more individual semantice roles and/or residual grammatical categories; they express meanings in addition to the meanings expressed in individual words.
  120. semantics
    study of language content; rules and principles for the expression and understanding of meaning
  121. semi-auxiliary
    words like "gotta, gonna, wanna" and hafta used with a verb that appears to be the main verb of a sentence including catentives
  122. semi-auxiliary complement
    a noun phrase that is the complement of the infinitive within the semiauxiliary verb phrase
  123. sentence
    a subject (noun phrase) and a predicate (verb phrase)
  124. sequence gap error
    When a NARRATIVE contains gaps in the order a STORY is told.
  125. setting
    The part of a NARRATIVE that indicates where and when a STORY takes place and who the characters are; may include description of characters.
  126. simple infinitive
    form of a verb consisting of to plus the verb
  127. simple infinitive clause
    form of a verb consisting of to plus the verb used in a sentence without other sentence constituents
  128. speech act
    a linguistic unit of communication consisting of a propostion (meaning) and illocutionary force (intention)
  129. spontaneous speech
    speech that does not repeat part of the precedingutterance
  130. standard deviation
    Represents the average difference of a set of test scores from the mean score.
  131. story
    Usually fictional; fictionalized ACCOUTS of animals, people, and/or created beings that relate past, present, or future events that are not real.
  132. story generation
    One kind of elicited NARRATIVE sample; contrasted with RETELLING; the student is asked to generate or make up a STORY and may be provided with a picture or picture sequence; no model STORY is provided.
  133. sotry grammar
    Provides the overall thematic organization of a STORY in terms of causal and temporal relationships; including SETTING and EPISODE structure (initiating event, internal response, plan, attmept, consequence, reaction).
  134. story schema
    A mental representation of the structure of a STORY; used for both comprehending and producing STORIES.
  135. sotry stem
    One sentence provided by the examiner that gives a bit of SETTING and character(s) to start a STORY, which the student must finish.
  136. story structure level
    Used to describe the MACROSTRUCTURE  of fictional stories and sometimes PERSONAL NARRATIVES; describes eight levels ranging from isolated description to complex and embedded EPISODES.
  137. subject noun phrase
    a phrase that functions as the subject of the verb of a sentence
  138. subject of a sentence
    a person, thing or idea expressed as as single noun, pronoun, or noun, phrase described in a sentence.
  139. subordinate clause
    group of words consisting of at least a noun and a verb, that cannot stand alone because it is introduced by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun
  140. subordination index
    The number of independent and dependent clauses divided by the number of CUs or T-units in a sample; also referred to as MEAN CLAUSE PER CU or  MEAN CLAUSE PER T-unit.
  141. syntax
    study of language forms
  142. text
    Oral and written units of langauge, larger than a sentence, that have a common theme and show cohesive patterns
  143. time-sampling
    Refers to using a specified length of time to determine length of DISCOURSE sampling rather than a specified number of utternaces.
  144. topic
    aspect of conversation that holds conversation together; a topic may be viewed as old or new etc
  145. T-unit
    A MINIMAL TERMINABLE UNIT consisting of one INDEPENDENT clause with all SUBORDINATE clauses attached to it; used for segmenting written samples by some (Hunt).
  146. TTR
    a measure of vocabulary diversity obtained by dividing the number of different words in a sample of 50 utteraces by the total number of words.
  147. uncontractible copula
    uncontractible form of main verb be
  148. uncontractible auxiliary
    uncontractible form of verb be
  149. unmarked infinitive clause
    an infinitive clause in which the to is not stated but is implied from the sentence structure (usually introduced by let, help, watch, make, need, see, hear, or feel)
  150. verb
    word that depicts action or state of being
  151. verb particle
    a relational word that is associated with a verb
  152. verb phrase
    verb + any additional words or phrases that are needed to complete the verb
  153. verbal disruptors
    (see also MAZE.) An interruption of fluent speech including fillers, MAZES, SELF-CORRECTIONS, personal qualifieers, unrelated questions or comments, and ABANDONED UTTERANCES.
  154. WH-clause
    a subordinate clause that is introduced by a wh- word and provides adjectval information
  155. Wh-infinitive clause
    an infinitive that is introduced by a wh- word, therefore subordinated to the main verb
  156. yes/no questions
    a question form that requires a ues or no response.