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Dred Scott vs. Sandford Case
- * Court case said that slaves were not citizens of the United States and could not sue in court (Popular Sovereignty).
- * Case also said that congress had no power to ban slavery.
- * The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
- * Social Sciences influenced this Supreme Court case (Dred Scott Decision)
- * Nonviolent resistance such as boycotts and peaceful demonstrations. Leader of Indian Nationalist movement against Britain. Went on a food strike to bring about the mistreatment of his people.
- * Lasting contribution was passive resistance.
Aristocracy (Relates to 3 things)
- * Land owning / wealthy
- * Power is passed down by generations
- * Power that controls the government
- * Divine right to power
Catherine the Great of Russia
* Followed by 6 weak rulers. She was concerned about nobility leading to bad conditions for peasants, expanded Russian Territory.
Roman Empire influence on England and France
- * More on France, because of the Church.
- * Geography as well, France is closer.
Reasons for Germans defeat in WWII
- * Soviet/Nazi Pact - agreement between Hitler and Stalin to not attach each other.
- * Control of Mediterranean.
- * Blocking allies retreat
- * Best Answer: "Fought a two front war due to the fact that Hitler decides to invade his ally - Russia - to gain access to oil supply; allies to the west and the Russians to the west. Hitler spread his forces to thin.
- * A groups refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral.
- * Example - protest against discrimination. American Colonists against the British Laws.
Fall of the Catholic Church during the Middle ages.
- * Loss of land to Muslim invaders.
- * Due to failure of crusades, the pope and church lost power and prestige.
- * Feudal Kings began to gain more power (many were crusaders)
- * Split between Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox widened.
- * Crusades Protestant Reformation = Martin Luther broke Catholics away from the church and they became protestant. Black Death.
- * Martin Luther - a German monk who wanted to reform the Catholic Church of corruption and abuse. He wrote the 95 theses and nailed them to the Church door - three were questions against the church - Luther was soon excommunicated from the church and therefore started his own church - The Lutheran Church --> leading to the Protestant (protestors seeking reform) Reformation.
- * Catholic Reformation-->King Henry 8th wanted annulment for marriage and the Pope would not grant it so he broke off and became the head of the Church of England.
Darwin and Marx
- * Marx - founder of modern communism - state has ALL power.
- * Wrote the communist Manifest 1848 = Soviet Unions way of govt.
- * Darwin - English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection.
- * Strongest shall survive Rich-Poor, no in between. (Social Darwinism).
Who consisted of the ancient Greek Slaves?
* Prisoners captured by the city states.
What represented Mayan Gods?
* Ancestor Objects
* "Papal States"
How is Chronology used in a specific event?
* States the order in which events happened.
- * King of Roman Empire
- * Brought Romans and Pope together, wanted people to learn through the church.
- * He is best remembered for resurgence of learning during the Dark Ages/Middle Ages = 800 AD - he encouraged learning at a time when no learning was taking place, he was crowned king of the Holy Roman Empire (First time a German was successor to Roman emperors)
Aztec and Inca governments: Similarities how they were ran?
* Emperor is a descendant from God.
Aztec and Inca civilizations of the 15th Century shared what?
* They were farmers; Emperors ruled large empires; led by emperor; Believed in Sun God and religion was an important part of society
Nixon and Kissenger
- * Nixon was the only president to be impeached and forced to resign.
- * Kissenger was his secretary of state and both were involved in the Watergate Scandal.
- * Watergate - Democratic Headquarters.
- * Scandal - Get dirt from the democrats before election.
- * Vice President Gerald Ford became president due to the fact that Nixon's first vice-president Spiro Agnew resigned due to income tax evasion
- * One of Ford's first order of business was to pardon Nixon.
- * Nixon was not impeached - he avoided impeachment by resigning (Andrew Johnson, successor to Lincoln was the first president to be impeached - he was acquitted by one vote)
- * Kissinger was Nixon's National Secretary advisor first and then became secretary of state - German born, he was not involved in the scandal, very influential on international scene, gave the "peace is at hand" speech regarding the Vietnam War 12 days before the November 1972 elections (Nixon was re-elected).
- * Watergate - democratic headquarters in Washington, burglarized by members of the CREEP committee (committee to re-elect the president) - unethical, secretive, unlawful group - including improper use of FBI and CIA.
- * Arms Control and a permanent relaxation of the Cold War.
Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909
- * Protected national parks/established the National Forest Laws (Conservation)
- * Trust buster against monopolies
- * Speak softly and carry a big stick was his foreign policy
- * Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine - allowed US to intervene in any Latin American problem.
- * Implemented the "Square Deal" program
How was Judaism different from Pre- Christian religions?
* Belief in One God
Malcom X vs. MLK Jr. How was King different?
- * King - believed in non violence acts
- * Peaceful (passive resistance)
- * Malcom X - believed in separation (militant)
- * Hated civil disobedience and civil rights movement
- * Believed in violence if necessary
Rivers for Confucianism, Islam, Hinduism
- * Hinduism - Ganges River
- * Islam - Tigris & Euphrates
- * Confucianism - Huang He
Primary and Secondary Sources
- * Plain sources that proves something (Eye-Witness) and the secondary sources aren't as important, but they help bring the point across.
- * Primary sources are first hand accounts - journals, diaries, letters, actual video footage, receipts, government documents, etc.
- * Secondary accounts are written after the event, usually by historians who take primary sources and create an account of the event, through textbooks, encyclopedias, biographies, movies, reference books, etc.
* Drawing conclusions
Alexander the Great
- * Spread Greek Culture
- * Eastern-Hellenistic culture
- * One of the greatest military minds along with Caesar and Hannibal
Alexander the Great enduring effects
- * Centralized Greco Persian Empire, spread of Greek culture, ideologies, art, architecture, learning
- * major city = Alexandria, Egypt (home of the great library)
Japan after WWII
- * Democratic Government - built itself up to be a leading industrialized nation. As part of the treaty, Japan cannot build up military
- * Assisted in rebuilding by the U.S. and the Marshall Plan - offered both financial and military aid to devastated countries (Japan and Europe)
Totalarism vs. Authoritarian
- * Total - controls all citizen rights, controls every aspect
- * Authoritarian - has the ability of unlimited authority
African Poem about Jane Austen
* The poem was about abusing blacks to get rich on Sugar Plantations.
Census Bureau and who would use it
- * Used for tax info
- * Allocate federal resources
- * Used by Department of Commerce and Department of Labor
20th Century technology
* Globalization - Trains & Cars, Computers, Space Travel
Where did Industrial Revolution inventors invent?
* Textile Laboratories & Universities
Advantages of North and South during the Civil War
- * North - Population, Money, Industry
- * South - Strong Military Leaders, Defensive Battle, Defending their homes.
Betty Freidan and "la femme mystique"
- * Higher Education harmful to women, felt trapped as homemaker.
- * Her name is FREIDAN, her book "THE FMININE MYSTIQUE" helped jump start the women's rights movement in America.
Great Awakening - 2 separate episodes
- * Series of religious revolts that swept over the American Colonies about the middle of the 18th century.
- * This was the first great awakening with Jonathan Edwards - who gave the famous sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" significant because it was the first unifying movement in the colonies that created several new colleges to encourage seminary studies (Princeton, Rutgers, Dartmouth)
- * Ministers held revival that stressed being born again emotionally and spiritually; Encouraged individuality and Christian experience.
- * Do away with alcohol.
- * 2nd Great Awakening was a response to enlighten ideas and Unitarian movement - religious revivals ensued, leading to conversion of thousands, creation of new churches as others crumbled, and many new religious sects
- * Encouraged evangelical ideas that spilled over into reform movements
- * Started by Presbyterians under William Tennant in New Jersey.
- * Started by Jonathan Edwards in New England.
* "set them free" Abolished Slavery
- * "aliens no more" gave right to citizenship to all persons born in U.S.
- * Overturned the DRED SCOTT DECISION.
- * No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
- * "Voterized" Black Men COULD vote.
- * Right to vote for every citizen (not all citizens - women were still fighting for their voice! - you can see the lowly status of women.
Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan
- * Marshall Plan - gave Europe financial support to rebuild after WWII, European Recovery Program
- * Truman Doctrine - the United States will help defend any country that is trying to resist communism
- * 1803 Jefferson buys all of France's land in North America for $15 million
- * Increased both the size (doubled it) and debt of the United States.
- * Purchase was made primarily to secure the access of the Mississippi River and New Orleans.
- * 1820 agreement calling for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and outlawing slavery in the future states to not created north of 30 degrees north latitude.
- * Became a problem later with California.
- * BALANCE SLAVE & FREE STATES.
Most Urbanized Country
* Hong Kong, U.S., France, Japan???
Main thing in common in North Africa and South Africa
* history or rapid growth population ???
- * a business owned and managed by a single individual.
- * Disadvantage, Liable for ALL debts
* Small group dominates the market
Economy of Scale
- * Factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises.
- * Economies of scale refers to production activities that lower unit production costs by increasing size of production units.
- * Mass Production.
Supply and Demand
- * How much factories are willing to supply = How much people are willing to buy
- * Equilibrium - balance between price & quantity
* Central Government makes all decisions on the production and consumption of goods.
- * Free Market - decisions are based on individuals and are based on exchange and trade.
- * The U.S. operates in a voluntary Free Market that is not controlled by any Government authority.
* Involved around family - relies on habit, custom, or ritual to decide what to produce, how to produce it, and to whom to distribute it.
* Knowledge of what economic concept would best enable consumers to analyze potential purchases related to family budget
Why would U.S. adopt expansionary fiscal policy?
* 10% labor unemployment force
Keynesian Economic Principles
- * Government intervention in the market place to ensure productivity and growth.
- * Example: Spending during a recession to promote activity.
What is the consequence when the exchange rate of the US declines?
* imports become more expensive, inflation
- * French words that refer to a liberal form of government.
- * Theory that government should play little role in society. (Market and private sectors operate well on own without state intervention)
When an Oligopy market exists and there is and increased need for the products, the Government can increase competition by doing what?
* Limiting supply
During a recession what could the Government do to adopt an expansionary Fiscal policy?
* Lower the fed rates, lower taxes and increases spending, expanding output
* society does not have efficient resources to produce enough to fulfill wants
* One country can produce goods items cheaper than another
* Country has less opportunity to produce well
* Company must pay whether operating or not
* Increase in value of money and decrease in prices
* Decrease in value of money and increase in prices
- * Relationship between money income and spending for the economy as a whole
- * Expenditure allows for sale of goods and services which allows payment of income
- * mostly privately owned business that were owned for profit and distribution
- * Prices are determined in a free market. (Free Enterprise)
* Determined by least and greatest amount of use.
* signed by King John in 1215 that granted certain rights to English noblemen and became the foundation for the future ideas in America of liberty and justice. (Bill of Rights for the English)
What were immigrants in America seeking after the Civil War?
- * Government into 3 branches - LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE, JUDICIAL - with representation based on population.
- * this of course angered the small states thus leading to the New Jersey Plan - pretty much the same except representation was equal which then of course led to the Great Compromise - combining both plans as well as solving the representation question
- * house based on population, senate given equal number to all states.
Why are U.S. women farther ahead than developing countries of the world?
* Cultural attributes - the idea of equality - the right to vote, access to education and workforce
Marbury vs. Madison
- * established the evaluation of federal laws constitutionality, or judicial review, as power of the Supreme Court.
- *The court has the final say in constitutionality of law - court has the right to review all cases related to constitutionality of certain laws
Main Language and Religion in North Africa and West Asia?
- * Language - Arabic
- * Religion - Islam
Main Religion of South Asia
* Hinduism, primarily Asia, but Buddhism from India to China to Malaysia.
* the power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a government action.
Best invention of transportation and its location?
- * the railroad, it changed the face of America after the Civil War, connected the Atlantic to the Pacific and all points in between
- * Helped 2 things: westward expansion & trade
Reason for Farmers to go West?
- * Find new fertile land, better climate to grow a variety of things.
- * Primarily land, with the Homestead Act of 1863, people could claim land and keep it after 5 years.
* proclaiming something into law and people must follow the decree.
- * Breaking down a culture
- * Example: We broke down the America Indian Cultural by moving them to reservations and making them learn the white man;s way of life, - this is acculturation.
- * Spread of ideas, customs technology, through (trade, migration, War)
Diffusion is the movement of one culture to another - i.e. the Conquistadors brought the language, food, religion, weapons and technology to the new world
* these cultural features were integrated into the native culture and vise-versa
* acting out a real life event
* Adapting to a country and way of living different from one's own.
Best example of how physical geography affects a culture?
- * Nomads - Mediterranean Sea?
- * The foods we eat are determined by where we live - people in New England/Maine eat a lot of lobster
- * People in Texas eat a lot of BBQ; the English eat a lot of mutton, the Arabs don't eat pork, the Chinese stir fry food because they don't have enough fuel to cook long meals, etc.
- * The clothes we wear are determined by where we live - some African tribes wear little to nothing, but people in Alaska won't be doing that!!!
- * the transportation we use is determined by geography - Venice uses the gondolas, Saharan people use camels, large cities use public transit.
* Rights read to you when you are arrested. Right to remain silent, lawyer, etc.
War Powers Act
* 1973 law limiting a President's ability to involve the United States in foreign conflicts without receiving a formal declaration of war from congress.
What did U.S. ignore in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
* Mexican land grants
* He had wide spread support in Mexico
Difference between families in industrialized and non industrialized nations?
* Healthier, Wealthier, More Educated
- * Leader of the NIAGRA Movement - 1st African American to preach Civil Rights for blacks 1905;
- * he and the Pan African congress met in Paris to fight the oppression of blacks in colonial America
WWII - Affect on Africa
- * imperialistic designs set in motion in the early 1900s were breaking down African countries
- * began seeking independence from European strong holds
Economic Change in South during Reconstruction
- * Tenant farming - Rent Land
- * Sharecropping - split profit with land owner
* higher than merchants
Why Islam appeals to different people
* appeals to the common man; Sense of brotherhood, community, and belongings
Chavez Grape Workers Strike
- * Mexicans went on strike for better working conditions while picking fruit
- * Cesar Chavez was the leader
Political Cause of American Revolution
- * Taxation by the Colonist on the British - Taxation by representation
- * Writs of Assistance (advanced search warrants)
- * Navigation Acts, all goods had to be shipped on English ships
- * Locke social contract theory, right to overthrow one's government
* Small communities divided by mountains and seas
* Poor, least developed countries in the world
* self-improvement with the aim of attaining personal experience
- * Behavior can be explained and studied scientifically without recourse to mental state.
- * Observation of behavior is the best way to examine mental process.
- * a leading pioneer of education reform during the 1820's
- * wanted public education for everyone.
- * 17th century philosopher, concerned with mans natural rights, life, liberty, property.
- * Ideas formed the basis for the concepts used in American law and government allowing the colonist to justify Revolution.
- * Thoughts went into the constitution.
- * 2 WRITINGS - HUMAN UNDERSTANDING & TREATIES ON CIVIL RIGHTS
- * Montesquieu - philosopher had greatest impact on U.S. government and his ideas of separation of powers
John Locke vs. Hobbes
- * Locke - government is there for people
- * Hobbes - people are there for the government.
Alexander Hamilton and Thoma Jefferson - effect on society?
- * Federalist - wanted a new Government under the constitution; wanted a stronger central government
- * Anti-federalist wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation, but just fix it a little
- * Jefferson was an ANTI-FED; Hamilton was a Nationalist/Federalist, His faction of the Federalists would lead to what we now know as the Republican party.
Female during the temperance movement
* Francis Willard - Leader of Unions to get rid of alcohol.
Nebraska Kansas Act - 1854
- * law that called for the creation of these 2 new territories and stated that citizens in each territory should decide whether slavery would be allowed there
- * Both voted no slavery
- * This concept of letting the states control the issue of slavery is popular sovereignty
Why did Indians not make it in Mexico?
* Diseases harsh treatment by Spanish (Treated much like slaves)
What president had most change during the Gilded Age?
- * Grover Cleveland, because he was the first democrat since the CW (over 25 years)
- * takes on tariff, government surplus, appointed southerners to cabinet, unions, strikes, trusts and monopolies.
Importance of a Census police Report?
* To find out about a city or region, High Crime, etc.
How is a bill to be passed?
- * Passed by both houses of congress and signed into law by the president
- * House & Senate 2/3 vote.
Judicial Branch of Government
* Supreme Court that interprets the law
Korean War / Vietnam war - U.S. role? How did it affect us the same?
- * We got no where, fighting the communists
- * could not win and it frustrated the American people and turned them against the government.
What kind of farming in the South after Civil War?
* Sharecropping and Tenant farming
* Terrace Farming - Rice in large terrace fields.
* Lush area with lots of rain and vegetation; grasslands, drought-resistant trees, tall scrub brush, fluctuating water
How did Truman justify dropping the atomic bomb on Japan?
* Save a million American lives at least, that is what was estimated lost if the allies would have had to invade mainland Japan.
Why did Franklin Roosevelt attempt to appoint more judges?
- * The court started striking down some of his New Deal plans and he wanted people in there that would vote the way that he wanted them to vote
- * Greatly angered the American public but they got over it - called court packing
John Locke & Karl Marx, their point of view on government?
- * Marx - wanted state to have all the power.
- * Locke - concerned with man's natural rights. Constitution.
Taft views on international affairs
* dollar diplomacy let the American dollar help your economy and we will not have to worry about rebellions.
What were Theodore Roosevelt's views on international affairs?
- * speak softly and carry a big stick
- * Panama Canal
- * Watergate scandal, Nixon
- * Nixon bugged the Democratic offices and got caught
- * He refused to turn over evidence under the blanket of Executive Privilege.
Soujourner Truth's main grievance was?
* We should not be fighting for just black rights, but black women's rights.
What was Hamilton's major influence in America?
* Banking system and the U.S. Treasury (Federalism, founded the National Bank)
What was the reason for NATO?
- * North Atlantic Treaty Organization - to try and form a blockade around Russia right after the conclusion of WWII.
- * To stop communism from expanding out of Russia.
* African America literary awakening of the 1920's centered in Harlem
After WWII, Why did Japan assimilate ideas from the western countires?
* They saw we were more advanced and wanted to catch up with the west.
Camp David Accords
* Agreement between Egypt and Israel in 1978 to discuss peace treaties - President Jimmy Carter
Difference between modern authoritarian and traditional authoritarian?
- * Modern = police state
- * Traditional = dictatorship
- * Mid 20's through late 30's caused by a severe drought and a plummet in agriculture prices
- * People left farms and moved west to California
Similarities of Aztecs and Incas
- * They both have Emperors
- * Aztecs - Emperor is chosen by a committee
- * Incas - Emperor is a descendent from God.
- * Concerned with social order and harmony
- * Chinese culture and values; Huang He River
Women's Christian Temperance Union
* started in 1874 opposed drinking on the grounds that it lead to personal tragedy
- * President who made the U.S. respected around the world
- * Trust buster - started with National Parks in America
- * Foreign Policy, "Speak softly and carry a big stick"
Islam - where originated and river
- * River - Tigris/Euphrates
- * Developed among Arabic speaking people of the Arabian Peninsula
* a native from Venezuela. who after several attempts was able to free Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru from Spanish rule.
- * term used to describe President Franklin Roosevelt relief recovery and reform programs deigned to combat the Great Depression
- * Set up government agencies to put people back to work
South Carolina succession
- * First state to secede from the Union because of State's rights
- * Started the Civil War
Central American Government
* Unstable, dictatorship, Non - Industrialized
* Program implemented by the federal government between 1865-1877 to repair damage to the South caused by the Civil War and to restore the Southern States to the Union
- * Country is more important than person
- * Political philosophy that emphasis the importance of the nation or an ethic group and the supreme authority of the leaver over that of the individual
- * Hitler and Germany, Mussolini and Italy; individual made country weak, need for dictator (Belief)
- * Economic system where land is exchanged for military service
- * Wealthy Land Owners and Royalty
- * Poor, plain people, basically slaves to the royalty
- * System in Medieval Europe
- * King/Lord/Knights/Peasants
- * the manor is the basis of the feudal society - everything is tied to the land; total self-sufficiency the economy in a feudalism government; Rich/Poor
- * Nobles leased land out to peasants that the peasants would harvest then give a cut to noble for payment
- * 3 types of land - Used by lord & household; Land that peasants supplied labor services for; Free peasant land
* Bubonic Plague in England during the 1300's, when people got bit by a flea and died actually throughout Europe, causing 1/2 to 1/3 loss of population
* Having the right to have your own business and make your own money.
- * 1980's, South African leader who wanted civil rights for the blacks in a white dominated government
- * The blacks were the vast majority in South Africa, but the whites held the power.
- * Mandela was thrown in prison for years because he was considered a trouble maker.
* Eli Whitney's invention that separated the seed from the cotton ball and revolutionized the cotton industry.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
- * law passed by congress in 1890 that outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce, so businesses could not compete with each other
- * Equal business protection
* 1920, granted women the right to vote
Regents of University of California vs. Bakke
- * legalized affirmative action, equal opportunity
- * schools had to have a certain percent of blacks in school
Roe vs. Wade 1973
* court case that legalized abortion
* Freed slave who preached for the freedom of the African Americans
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
* Fought for slavery then turned attention to women's rights
Plessey vs. Ferguson
- * Segregation was permitted if facilities were equal
- * Segregated public facilities were permitted until Plessy was overturned by Brown vs. Board of Education
* Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and did a lot in the Civil Right Cases of the 60's
* Wife of Franklin Roosevelt loved by Americans, could often be seen out around the country listening to people since her husband had a difficult time traveling due to polio.
Sub Sahara Africa Culture/Economy
* total subsistence
Greece Culture/Economy? Ancient Greek?
* Depends on which city-state: Sparta - warrior-like; Athens more intellectual engaged in trade
* Post World War - peace agreement
Civil Rights Act of 1964
* Law that made discrimination illegal in a number of areas, including voting, schools and jobs.
* Assembly Line, Model T
Susan B. Anthony
- * fought for Black's rights
- * Leader of Women's suffrage movement
Germany mistakes in WWII
* Opening a second front with Russia and not responding quickly to the D-Day invasion of Normandy/France
- * War throughout 1990's
- * poor economy trying to rebuild after wars
Second Great Awakening
- * Protestant Religious Movement early 1800's
- * Get rid of alcohol; many new denominations started.
* Operation that moved supplies into West Berlin by Americans and British planes during a soviet blockade from 1948-1949
* term used to describe Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti-communist smear tactics.
14 POINTS Wilson (WWI) - Paris France
- * President Wilson's plan to keep another WW from happening
- * Only one part of his plan was accepted by the League of Nations
- * The U.S. never joined the League of Nations.
Increase the amount of agriculture
* Contour farming - land conservation
Natures of Cultural Change
* Changes in one culture are accompanied by another
Major economic consequences of information revolution in late 20th century
* Increased interdependence among world finance market
Low population growth medium death rate and birth rate
* Western Europe
Summer Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere
* occurs when the earth is closest to the sun; earth is tilted towards the sun; the whole northern hemisphere is shaded in black.
Constitutional sanctioned procedures for mending the constitution
* 3/4 of states ask president to call convention
Tectonic process leads to climate change
* Conventional movements alter flow of currents
Jerusalem, Ganges, Loudes, Mecca
* Traditional site of religious pilgrimage
5000 BC to 100 AD Messo-American Culture
* Maize Cultivation
European population growth in 1730
* Stable food supplies
Influenced abolitionists movement in 1830's
* Whig party, Uncle Tom's Cabin
Also there a question with a picture of a tree and a process going on with it
* answer is SOIL PERMEABILITY
Political Cartoon about the ship - Government vs. people
* answer is SEPERATION OF POWERS
What are the long term effects of plate tectonics?
* the earth is being reshaped
There are 3 elementary schools that are all operating at 60%, the school board decides to shut one of them down, what type of map should be used to decide which one?
* Population Density
What purpose did the LULAC and LA RAZA UNIDA disagree on?
* to speak English or Spanish
How was Queen Elizabeth able to so quickly restore public confidence?
* She restored the protestant religion, defeated the Spanish Armada, became symbolic Virgin Mary.
What was the purpose of the 1995 voter registration act?
* To remove impediments in the voting process, gave them the ability to vote at places like DPS when they got their license.
Why did the Texas constitution require state budget and government to meet at least 140 days per year?
* Because all states require that.
In colonial times, all farmers would store food together to save for the fall harvest, but some would not work as hard knowing that the food would be there either way. This is an example of what?
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs proves that?
* people are motivated by unsatisfied needs, such as hunger, etc.
What was the biggest issue at the Constitutional Convention?
* Articles of Confederation
The central assumption of type trait personality is what?
* people behavior is consistent
Thomas Edison influenced what scientific work?
* Research labs and Assembly Lines
What did Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson all have in common?
* Social Services
The French and Indian War contributed what to the America Revolution?
* Guerilla War Tactics
What did the French use as leverage against other Europeans in the French/Indian War?
* Fur Trading Posts
What did the Vietnam and Korean War have in common?
* "Containment" - the U.S. was attempting to stop Communism
What did the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and NATO have in common?
* They were all designed to block Soviet expansion in W. Europe.
Which 17th Century group went through a seasoning process of disease?
* Tidewater region of Virginia
The Iroquois strengthened negotiating power with Spain and France by doing what?
* Staying neutral and allowing one of them to establish superiority
Why did Roger Williams found Rhode Island?
* Religious Intolerance
What was a major political cause of the American Revolution?
* Taxation without representation
Which is not a reason Germany lost WW2?
* Endurance of British
What was the long term effect of Norman the conquerors conquest in 1066?
- * He became the King of England
- * Latin based language
- * loss of Anglo Saxon Aristocracy
What influenced the renaissance culture in North-Central Italy in the 14th Century?
What influenced Spanish and Portuguese Maritime expansion in the 15th Century?
* Greed, Gold, Glory, and God
Peter the Great most influenced the Enlightenment era by doing what?
* Improved Russian relations with other countries; Organized the Russian economy
The pressure from the catholic forced Carolingian rulers to adopt monogamous marriage as their official policy. What was the major consequence of this? How did this effect Women?
* The church asserted more power
What was the cause of the 60 Million population increase after 1730?
How did the black death of the 14th century affect society?
* Less people = less workers = more money per worker
What was the biggest reason for the start of WWI?
* The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
What was the LEAST concerned factor of the French Revolution?
* Women's Rights
What time period was Western Africa Independence?
What led to the spread of communist countries?
* Poverty, abusive countries, poor economy
Who built the Great Wall of China?
- * Several dynasties including the Qin-Han 5 dynasties
- * 10 Kingdoms; Hong-wu
What does monotheistic religion mean?
* Belief in ONE God.
Japan order of Society
* DAIMYOS, SAMURAI, RONIN, PEASANTS, MERCHANTS
How do you present number information to a group of uneducated people?
* Pie Graph
The bird sons along the Chantily, Rockies, etc?
* Spatial Interaction and/or Cultural Diffusion
The NASA Graph
* Global Warming
Montesquieu - Political Philosopher (Checks & Balances)
* Three branches of Government
Advancement in technology led to what?
* More skilled workers = less labor workers
The presidential election of 2000, was ultimately decided by ?
* Supreme Court
In the response to the terror attacks of 2001, what government agency was instituted?
* Department of Homeland Security
Who killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel?
* Aaron Burr
Jefferson's Embargo Act
* Placed a ban on foreign trade.
Non-Intercourse act permits trade with foreign countries except?
* Britain and France
Indian Removal Act during
* Jackson's presidency
Map asking about most urbanized area?
* East Asia
Map of Asia with arrows pointing from India to East, Central, and North Asia?
* Trade Routes
* U.S. Ambassador
Brown vs. Board of Education
* Invalidated Racial Segregation in schools
Most popular religion in the world?
Song about New England, Great Lakes, Rocky Mountains, Nova Scotia?
* Cultural Assimilation/Cultural Diffusion
* Theory holds that inequality is a benefit to society as a whole because the promise of greater rewards, motivates people to take risks, pursues difficult goals, challenge existing ideas, innovate, and explore.
* Chinas ideology that kept the country together. Stressed individual morality and proper practice of political power by rulers. 4 life passages were BIRTH MATURITY MARRIAGE DEATH.
* State ownership in means of production; Property and distribution of wealth controlled government
* Similar to socialism, also creates stateless classless society. Common ownership in all things.
* Election in which voters select candidates
* sought to end slavery
* Alcohol consumed or prohibits production and consumption completely
* improve conditions in prisons, more effective penal code.
* Classical Greece and Rome, government in hands of minority who are surrounded by the majority.
* Content that is set by nature, and is valid everywhere you go
* Person enters society with certain rights that no government can take away
Divine right to monarch
* Monarch owes rule to God and not to his servants, questioning him is the same as questioning God.
Social Contract Theory
* Agreement in which men abandoned state of nature to form society they now live under.
Mandate of Heaven
* Heaven would bless authority of just ruler, and would give mandate to some one else if that ruler was unjust
Treaty of Tordellias
* Line of Demarcation; Spain got land in America; Portugal got route around Africa
* Africa got alcohol, guns, pots and pans; America got Slaves; Europe got sugar, tobacco, coffee, and cotton.
* loyalty to one's nation
* Use REASON and natural law to shape society; systematic thinking in all forms of human society; God is not arbitrary and he rules through natural law on earth
* Manufacturing shifted from hand tools to machines; Factories replaced workshops; Goods sold nationwide, instead of locally
* Defend the interest of common people against corrupt elite
* Economic and political domination of strong nations over weaker nations.
Factor leading to Imperialism
* Feeling of superiority; interest in expanding trade; European Competition; Need for military bases
* Needed strong navy to protect merchant ships that were trading with the rest of the world
* Pressured state legislature to require each party to hold direct primary election (all party members vote for a candidate to run in election)
- * Countries had collected silver and gold
- * sell more goods than bought
- * gave reliable market for raw materials
- * prevented selling goods to other Countries; SELF SUFFICIENCY
Treaty of Versailles
* Called for heavy reparations and disbarment for Germany after WW2; Created LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Proclamation of 1763
* Colonists could not move West of Appalachians
* Allow people to vote for proposed legislation
* idea that people can improve society and that the Government should play an active role.
- * Worshiped Animals; believed that when people died that they came back as animals
- * Ancestor objects & Nature represented Mayan gods
Earth's rotation creates weather and seasons
Miranda Rights come from what Amendment?
* connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. Controlled by British. The canal allowed the British quicker access to its colonies in Asia and Africa.
Han Dynasty keeping China Unified?
* Poitical and social stability.
* The devlopment of agriculture led to an in increase in population and a need for more food. The land could not supply that food, partly because of desertification as the Sahara expanded southward. So Bantu speakers moved south away from the Sahara and desertification. Bantu speakers were able to adapt well to defferent environments, had skills such as agriculture and iron-working they could teach to the people they settled among, and persisted in exploring as far south as they could go in Africa. Bantu migrated throughout souther Africa, spreading their langueage and culture.
* the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas. Ships from the Americas brought back a wide array of items that Europeans, Asians, and Africans had never before seen; tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, cacao beans (chocolate), Most important was corn and potatoes. Europeans introduced various livestock animals into the Americas, These include horses, cattle, and pigs. Foods from Africa migrated west in European ships, including bananas, black-eyed peas, and yams.
Muslim Empires were succesful (influential) because?
* Spreading Islam - They drew upon the duty Muslims felt toward their faith, their armies were well trained and well led, and they won non-Muslims' support because they tolerated religious diversity.
* Holy War, goal to recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim Turks
Crusades - CAUSES
- * Muslims control Palestine "Holy Land" and threaten Constantinople.
- * Byzantine emperor calls for help.
- * Pope wants to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom.
- * Pope appeals to Christian knights.
- * Knights feel religious zeal and want land, riches, and adventure.
- * Italian cities desire commercial power.
Crusades - EFFECTS
- * Byzantine Empire is weakened.
- * Pope's power declines.
- * Power of feudal nobles weakens.
- * Kings become stronger.
- * Religious intolerance grows.
- * Italian cities expand trade and grow rich.
- * Muslims increasingly distrust Christians.
- * Trade grows between Europe and the Middle East.
- * European technology improves as Crusaders learn from Muslims.
Fall of Charlemagnes Empire?
* TREATY OF VERDUN divided his empire into 3 kingdoms (after his death), kings lost power, central authority broke down.
Thousands died by the GUILLOTINE during the French Revolution.
Theory of Relativity
* ALBERT EINSTEIN
- * to revive the Catholic Church. Great Catholic reformer was Ignatius of Loyola, his followers were known as the Jesuits
- * Council of Trent was a council of Church leaders.
How is numerical data best measured, line graph, bar graph, time line?
1700's court case: John Peter Zenger started a newspaper that bashed the governor, helped pave the way for FREEDOM OF PRESS.
* founding place of a culture
Answer to liberal/direct democracy was LIBERAL DEMOCRACY
* change in temperarture over cool waters
* Official is ACCUSED of unlawful activity
The Ming dynasty is characterized by rapid and dramatic population growth, largely due to the increased food supply on account of the agricultural revolution. Urbanization was largely carried out on a small scale; small urban centers with markets proliferated around the country rather than the growth of a few large cities. Town markets mainly traded food with some necessary manufactures such as pins or oil. The large urban centers, however, also grew. The growth of large cities such as Nanjing inspired the growth of industry as well. In the mid-sixteenth century, because of the growth of large cities and the loosening of restrictive laws, commerce began to boom in China. This expansion of Chinese commerce, which lasted from 1500 to 1800 is considered the "Third Commercial Revolution" in Chinese history. In particular, small business grew that specialized in paper, silk, cotton and porcelain goods (the unique brand of porcelain ware that was all the fashion during the Ming consisted of white porcelain with blue paintings).
President Nixon's initial major foreign policy focus was on ending the War in Vietnam. He followed a dual track, on one hand decreasing direct American involvement in the fighting by Vietnamization - turning over more and more of the ground fighting directly to the Vietnamese. Simultaneously the fighting was expanded to neighboring Cambodia to destroy North Vietnamese sanctuaries. Many of Nixon's actions especially, his attack into Cambodia, was met with violent protest. After his attack on Cambodia, the demonstration included ones at Kent State University in which 4 students were killed by the National guard.
* Some examples of JIM CROW LAWS are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated.
The Jim Crow laws were a major factor in the Great Migration during the early part of the 20th century, because opportunities were so limited in the South that African Americans moved in great numbers to northern cities to seek a better life.
SEPERATION OF POWERS (CHECKS AND BALANCES)
The first three Articles of the United States Constitution detail and discuss specific powers reserved to the three branches of government that enable a balance of power.
Sub-Saharan Africa is rich in minerals. The region is a major exporter to the world of gold, uranium, chrome, vanadium, antimony, coltan, bauxite, iron ore, copper and manganese. South Africa is a major exporter of manganese. South Africa is also a major supplier of chrome. About 42% of world reserves and about 75% of the world reserve are located in South Africa. In addition, South Africa is the largest producer of platinum. 80% of the total world's annual mine production is from South Africa. 88% of the world's platinum reserve is in South Africa. Sub-saharan Africa produces 33% of the world's bauxite with Guinea as the major supplier. Zambia is a major producer of copper. Democratic Republic of Congo is a major source of coltan. Production from Congo is very small but has 80% of proven reserves. Sub-saharan Africa is a major producer of gold, producing up to 30% of global production. Major suppliers are South Africa, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Guinea, and Mali. South Africa had been first in the world in terms of gold production since 1905 but in 2007 it moved to second place, according to GFMS, the precious metals consultancy. Uranium is major commodity from the region. Significant suppliers are Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. Namibia was the number one supplier from Sub-Saharan Africa in 2008.
In the presidential election of 1860, the Republican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. In response to the Republican victory in that election, seven states declared their secession from the Union before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861. Both the outgoing administration of President James Buchanan and Lincoln's incoming administration rejected the legality of secession, considering it rebellion. Several other slave states rejected calls for secession at this point.
ANTHROPOLOGY and SOCIOLOGY are similar fields, as they both study how and why people behave the way they do and how these patterns affect social life. The main difference between the two sciences is that sociologists study society while anthropologists study culture.
Sociologists study society in regards to emerging social patterns, social interactions, social stratifications, culture, social problems, communication, etc. Sociologist use qualitative (interview based) and quantitative research as well as other means of studying various subject areas. Here are a few different areas of study within the discipline: Inequality, Deviance, Gender studies, Disaster, Conflict, Stratification, Education, Religion, Diversity, Gerontology, etc.
One can study just about anything as a Sociologist. In UNIVERSITY one would study the basics that include but are NOT confined to the following: The founders of SOCI (Comte, Spencer, Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Simmel) as well as: Basic SOCI approaches (micro, macro, ethno., exchange, etc.), A brief intro to research methodology, Culture (components, diversity, etc), Social structure (institutions, stratification, etc.), Socialization, Deviance (basic), Demography will also find its way into many chapters through birth rates, etc.), Paradigms (conflict, structural functionalist, symbolic interactionalist)
Free Silver, the unlimited coinage of silver by the U.S. government for anyone bringing the metal into the U.S. Mint, functioned as an important political slogan in the latter half of the nineteenth century. At that time, social unrest, political ambitions, and vested economic interests combined to cause a powerful push for legislation to increase the money supply.
"Walden" (Henry David Thoreau)
* Thoreau regarded his sojourn at Walden as an experiment with a threefold purpose. First, he was escaping the dehumanizing effects of the Industrial Revolution by returning to a simpler, agrarian lifestyle. Second, he was simplifying his life and reducing his expenditures, increasing the amount of leisure time in which he could work on his writings (most of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers was written at Walden). Much of the book is devoted to stirring up awareness of how one's life is lived, materially and otherwise, and how one might choose to live it more deliberately. Third, he was putting into practice the Transcendentalist belief that one can best "transcend" normality and experience the Ideal, or the Divine, through nature.
In the race for president, the winner of the popular vote in each state wins all the electoral votes in that state (except in Maine and Nebraska). There are 538 total electoral votes and 270 electoral votes - a majority - are needed to win.
The 12th Amendment to the United States Constitution outlines the process for electing the President of the United States. This indirect method of popular election is known as the Electoral College. A state's number of electoral votes equals the number of the state's Congressional delegation [the number of U.S. Senators (always 2) PLUS the number of U.S. Representatives.] The District of Columbia receives three electoral votes, as determined by the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution
The Electoral College consists of the popularly elected representatives (electors) who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States.
- * a physicist and chemist from Poland and a pioneer in the field of radioactivity
- * 2 noble prizes
- * discovered 2 elements POLONIUM & RADIUM.
White collar crime
* a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation; CORPORATE CRIME, fraud, bribery, computer crime, identity theft, forgery
* A cartogram is a map in which some thematic mapping variable, such as travel time or Gross National Product, is substituted for land area. The geometry or space of the map is distorted in order to convey the information of this alternate variable. There are two main types of cartograms: area and distance cartograms.
Protective Tarriff's - "BENEFITS FOR THE NORTH"
* A duty imposed on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition.
* costs (retrospective) past costs that have already been incurred and cannot be recovered.
* In economics, aggregate supply is the total supply of goods and services that firms in a national economy plan on selling during a specific time. It is the total amount of goods and services that firms are willing to sell at a given price level in an economy.
* when an entity spends more money than it takes in.
* Scapegoating is the practice of singling out one child, employee or member of a group of peers for unmerited negative treatment or blame.
3rd person in charge after the President
* Speaker of the House of Representative
* Latent functions are those that are neither recognized nor intended. A latent function of a behavior is not explicitly stated, recognized, or intended by the people involved. Thus, they are identified observers.
* is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation
* outermost shell of a planet, CRUST
* The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union.
* Some believe that a country which is deeply divided, whether by ethnic group, religion, or language, cannot establish a working democracy
* a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
Unification of Germany
* The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France.
Free Coinage of Silver
* Free Silver was an important political issue in the late 19th century and early 20th century United States. Its advocates were in favor of an inflationary monetary policy by "free coinage of silver"; its supporters were called silverites.
* Commercial agriculture: The production of crops for sale, crops intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets (e.g. supermarkets). In commercial farming wheat, maize, tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, cotton are harvested. Commercial agriculture includes livestock production and livestock grazing.
* Founder of AFL - American Federation of Labor
A. Phillip Randolph
- * 20th Century African America Civil Rights Leader, and founder of both the
- * March on Washington Movement, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters - a landmark for labor and particularly for African American labor organizing.
* is a brick or stone-lined fireplace or oven often used for cooking and/or heating.
What made China unique in 1500
* land, 3 rivers, or tools?
Jim Crow Laws
* "seperate but equal" status for African Americans
* uprising in Massachusetts - financial difficulties brought about by a post-war economic depression, a credit squeeze caused by a lack of hard currency, and fiscally harsh government policies instituted in 1785 to solve the state's debt problems
How do House & Senate members work together?
* a bill has to be passed in both houses for it to go to the president as a final bill
Checks and Balances is stated where?
* U.S. Constitution
Government having to spend in the market?
* to stimulate economy
Slaves migrated North because?
* to escape prosecution
How is numerical data best measured: line graph, bar graph, or time line?
Weapons used during french revolution or during 1700's, catapult, guillotine....
* canons, muskets, bayonets
History teachers topic is being covered in English with a novel, how does this help?
* cross curriculum
Why did 7 states secede from the Union?
* to be free and independent states - make own laws, money, etc.
Sociology v. Anthropology?
* sociologists - society, athropologists - culture
* exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian Hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492
* sparked 2nd wave feminism
* improved learning
Peter the Great improving Russia
* westernize it and make it more modern
Catherine the Great
* symbolic leader of "Golden Age of Russia" and "Russian Nobility" - longest female ruler of Russia
* order, stability and cooperation in society are based on value consensus that is a general agreement by members of society concerning what is good and worthwhile
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
* improve wages and working conditions
Mayflower Compact (Understand)
* fair and equal laws, for the general good of the settlement and with the will of the majority
What wiped out Native Americans?
* disease, soldiers, etc.
Nixons case was based on?
* executive privilege, supremacy
GNP chart Money rising (I think) 1945-1970? Why did it rise?
* tariffs on Imports, increase production and sells
Domain 1 World History - Competency 001 (Ancient World Civilizations)
The teacher understands significant historical events and developments in ancient world civilizations, factors influencing the development of ancient world civilizations, and major characteristics and contributions of ancient world civilizations.
- The beginning teacher:
- Analyzes the influence of various factors (e.g., geographic contexts, processes of spatial exchange [diffusion], science and technology) on the development of ancient civilizations.
- Demonstrates knowledge of individuals, events, and issues that shaped the development of ancient civilizations (e.g., Cleopatra, Confucius, Plato, Giza
- pyramids, conquests of Alexander the Great, polytheism vs. monotheism).
- Understands major political, economic, and cultural developments in the civilizations of Africa (e.g., Egypt, sub-Sahara), the Mediterranean basin (e.g., Greece, Rome), Mesoamerica (e.g., Maya), Andean South America (e.g., Inca tradition), Middle and Near East, and Asia (e.g., China, India, Japan).
- Applies knowledge of the location, political organization, cultural characteristics, and contributions of ancient civilizations.
Domain 1 Competency 002 (World History from 476 A.D. to 1350)
The teacher understands significant historical events, developments, and traditional points of reference in world history from 476 A.D. to 1350.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of individuals, events, issues, and traditional points of reference that shaped the development of world civilizations from 476 A.D. to
- 1350 (e.g., Genghis Khan, Mohammed, Charlemagne, the Norman Conquest, Silk Road).
- Demonstrates knowledge of major developments in the civilizations of Africa (e.g., Egypt, sub-Sahara), Mesoamerica (e.g., Aztec tradition), Andean South
- America (e.g., Inca tradition), Europe (including Western and Eastern), and Asia (e.g., China, India, Japan).
- Knows how new political, economic, and social systems evolved in Western Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (e.g., feudalism, manorialism).
- Understands the influence exerted by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church in medieval Europe.
- Compares social, political, economic, and religious aspects of medieval Europe with previous civilizations.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the political, economic, religious, and social impact of the Crusades.
Domain 1 Competency 003 (World History from 1350 to 1815)
The teacher understands significant historical events, developments, and traditional points of reference in world history from 1350 to 1815.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of individuals, events, issues, and traditional points of reference that shaped the development of world civilizations from 1350 to 1815
- (e.g., Martin Luther, the Black Death, Gutenberg, Leonardo da Vinci, Napoleon, Atlantic slave trade).
- Demonstrates knowledge of major developments in the civilizations of Africa (e.g., Egypt, sub-Sahara), the Americas (e.g., Inca, Aztec), Western and Eastern
- Europe, Middle East, and Asia (e.g., China, India, Japan).
- Understands the importance of the European Renaissance and Reformation eras in shaping the modern world.
- Understands the causes of European expansion and the effects of expansion on European and non-European societies.
- Analyzes the impact of political, economic, and cultural imperialism (e.g., conquest of the Aztec, expansion of the Ottoman Empire) on both colonizers and colonized.
- Analyzes the causes and effects of major political revolutions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (e.g., English Revolution of the 1640s, Glorious
- Revolution of 1688�1689, American Revolution, French Revolution).
Domain 1 Competency 004 (World History from 1815 to the Present)
The teacher understands significant historical events and developments in world history from 1815 to the present.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of individuals, events, and issues that shaped the development of world civilizations from 1815 to the present (e.g., Simon Bolivar, Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Russian Revolution).
- Analyzes the causes and effects of major political revolutions and independence movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
- Understands the impact of political, economic, and cultural expansion (e.g., rise of the British Empire, Japanese expansionism).
- Analyzes the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the impact of totalitarianism in the twentieth century (e.g., fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, Soviet Union).
- Analyzes the causes and effects of World War I and World War II.
- Understands significant events related to the twentieth century spread and fall of communism.
- Analyzes the influence of significant individuals of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (e.g., Adolf Hitler, Nelson Mandela, Mao Zedong, Mohandas Gandhi,
- Mother Teresa).
Domain 2 Competency 005 (Exploration and Colonization)
The teacher understands significant historical events and developments in the exploration and colonization of North America, and the development of colonial society.
The beginning teacher:
- Understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of North America, including interactions with Native American populations.
- Demonstrates knowledge of individuals, events, and issues that shaped the development of colonial society, including interactions among Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans.
- Analyzes political, economic, and cultural reasons for establishment of the thirteen colonies.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the foundations of representative government in the United States (e.g., ways in which the Mayflower Compact, the Iroquois
- Confederacy, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses contributed to the growth of representative government).
- Analyzes the influence of various factors on the development of colonial society (e.g., geographic contexts, slavery, processes of spatial exchange [diffusion], science and technology).
Domain 2 Competency 006 (Revolutionary Era and the Early Years of the Republic)
- The teacher understands significant historical events and developments of the Revolutionary Era and the early years of the Republic, including the foundations of
- representative government in the United States.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of individuals, events, and issues that shaped the development of U.S. society during the Revolutionary Era and early years of the
- Analyzes causes of the American Revolution (e.g., mercantilism, British policies following the French and Indian War).
- Understands significant political and economic issues of the Revolutionary Era (e.g., taxation without representation, enforcement of the Navigation Acts).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the foundations of representative government in the United States (e.g., the Articles of Confederation, issues of the Philadelphia
- Convention of 1787, such as major compromises and arguments for and against ratification).
- Understands the origin and development of American political parties (e.g., Federalists, Democratic-Republicans, Whigs, Democrats).
- Analyzes the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the Republic (e.g., economic programs, court system, expansion of
- slavery, establishing foreign relations).
Domain 2 Competency 007 (Westward Expansion, the Civil War, and Reconstruction)
The teacher understands significant historical events and developments related to westward expansion, the Civil War, and Reconstruction.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, cultural, and social development of the nation.
- Understands the political, economic, and social roots of Manifest Destiny and the relationship between the concept of Manifest Destiny and the westward growth of
- the nation.
- Identifies the territorial acquisitions that form the United States and explains the factors that influenced these acquisitions.
- Understands major issues and events of the Mexican War and their impact on the United States.
- Analyzes ways in which slavery and other political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and to the Civil War.
- Demonstrates knowledge of individuals, events, and issues of the Civil War.
- Analyzes the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation.
Domain 2 Competency 008 (The United States as a World Power)
- The teacher understands significant historical events and developments related to the emergence and role of the United States as a world power and the effects of major
- decisions and conflicts on the United States.
The beginning teacher:
- Understands factors and events that contributed to the emergence of the United States as a world power between 1898 and 1920 (e.g., imperialism, Panic of
- 1893, acquisition of Hawaii, Spanish-American War, U.S. involvement in World War I).
- Analyzes how national and international decisions and conflicts between World War I and World War II affected the United States (e.g., the Fourteen Points,
- isolationism, reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II).
- Analyzes how national and international decisions and conflicts from World War II to the present have affected the United States (e.g., decision to use the atomic bomb, Cold War).
- Demonstrates knowledge of significant individuals who shaped U.S. foreign policy from 1898 to the present (e.g., Alfred Thayer Mahan, Theodore Roosevelt,
- Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Henry Kissinger).
- Demonstrates knowledge of significant events and issues that shaped U.S. foreign policy from 1898 to the present (e.g., Berlin airlift, Korean War, Sputnik I,
- Vietnam War, Marshall Plan, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, McCarthyism, Cuban Missile Crisis, the Gulf War).
- Understands the origins of major foreign policy issues currently facing the United States and the challenges of changing relationships among nations.
Domain 2 Competency 009 (Political, Economic, and Social Developments from 1877
- The teacher understands significant political, economic, and social developments in
- the United States from 1877 to the present.
- The beginning teacher:
- Understands political, economic, and social changes in the United States from 1877 to the present (e.g., in relation to political parties, transportation, labor
- unions, agriculture, business, race, gender).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the effects of reform and third party movements and their leaders on U.S. society (e.g., Populism, Progressive Era reforms, New Deal
- legislation, Susan B. Anthony, W.E.B. Du Bois, Robert La Follette, Eugene Debs, George Wallace, H. Ross Perot).
- Analyzes the causes and effects of industrialization in the United States.
- Demonstrates knowledge of significant individuals who shaped political, economic, and social developments in the United States from 1877 to the present (e.g., Jane Addams, Henry Ford, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, Betty Friedan, Malcolm X).
- Demonstrates knowledge of events and issues that shaped political, economic, and social developments in the United States from 1877 to the present (e.g., ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, Great Depression, passage of the GI Bill, passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, growth of cities, antitrust legislation, immigration restriction).
- Analyzes the impact of civil rights movements in the United States, including the African American, Hispanic, Native American, and women's rights movements.
Domain 3 Competency 010 (Physical Geography Concepts, Natural Processes, and Earth's Physical
The teacher understands basic geographic concepts, natural processes involving the physical environment, and Earth's physical features.
The beginning teacher:
- Understands the concept of physical region as an area of Earth's surface with unifying physical characteristics (e.g., soils, climate, vegetation, river systems).
- Analyzes ways in which physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment (i.e., lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere).
- Demonstrates knowledge of how Earth-Sun relationships affect physical processes and patterns on Earth's surface.
- Analyzes relationships among climate, vegetation, soil, and geology to explain the distribution of plants and animals in different regions of the world.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the processes that produce these patterns and characteristics (e.g., factors that influence physical regions such as elevation, latitude, location near warm and cold ocean currents, mountain
- barriers, tectonic processes).
Domain 3 Competency 011 (Global and Regional Patterns of Culture and Human Geography)
The teacher understands global and regional patterns of culture and characteristics and processes associated with different cultural regions.
The beginning teacher:
- Understands the concept of cultural region as an area of Earth's surface with unifying cultural characteristics (e.g., language, religion, economy, political
- Analyzes ways in which cultural processes of innovation and diffusion shape patterns in the human environment.
- Demonstrates knowledge of locations and cultural and environmental features of major world regions (e.g., East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Europe,
- Southwest Asia, North Africa), and regions of the United States and Texas.
- Understands how the components of culture (e.g., land use, systems of education, religion, language) affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world populations (e.g., trends in past world population growth, push and pull factors affecting major national and international migrations, ways in which physical and cultural factors affect migration, how migration and immigration have affected societies).
- Analyzes ways in which political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions (e.g., analyzing political, economic, social, and demographic data to determine the level of development and standard of living in countries).
- Applies knowledge of the history and significance of major religious and philosophical traditions (e.g., Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism,
- Islam, Judaism, Realism, Idealism).
- Understands the importance of place for populations (e.g., Mecca, Jerusalem, Cuzco, Ganges River, Shrine of Guadalupe).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the impact of religion on the way of life in the United States.
- Recognizes relationships of the arts to the times in which they were created in the United States and world areas.
Domain 3 Competency 012 (Interactions between Human Groups and the Physical Environment)
The teacher understands the nature and significance of interactions among peoples, places, and environments.
The beginning teacher:
- Analyzes ways in which humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment in a variety of cultural and technological contexts.
- Understands and analyzes how people, places, and environments change over time and are connected and interdependent (e.g., connections among economic
- development, urbanization, population growth, and environmental change).
- Understands types and patterns of settlement, and physical and human geographic factors that affect where people settle (e.g., transportation routes,
- availability of resources), and processes of settlement development over time.
- Analyzes the influence of physical and human geographic factors on political, social, cultural, and economic developments in U.S. and world history
- (e.g., effect of the opening of the Suez Canal on world trade patterns).
- Analyzes the impact of the Neolithic agricultural revolution on human life and on the development of the first civilizations.
- Demonstrates knowledge of how population growth and modernization have affected the physical environment throughout history.
- Understands factors affecting the location of different types of economic activities and economic issues related to the location and management of key natural resources.
- Understands relationships between physical and human geographic factors and political divisions, relationships, and policies (e.g., ways in which forces of conflict
- and cooperation influence control of Earth's surface, the influence of physical and human geographic factors on foreign policies of countries such as Iraq, Israel,
- Japan, and the United Kingdom).
Domain 3 Competency 013 (Sociological, Anthropological, and Psychological Concepts and Processes)
- The teacher applies sociological, anthropological, and psychological concepts and processes to understand cultural formation and change, intergroup relations, and
- individual development.
The beginning teacher:
- Understands the role of culture as a foundation of individual and social behavior.
- Understands the evolving nature of race and gender relations in the United States, and knows how people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups
- have adapted to and modified life in the United States and contributed to a national identity.
- Analyzes ways in which cultures both change and maintain continuity.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the theoretical foundations of sociology and basic sociological principles and processes, including those related to group
- membership, roles, status, values, and stratification.
- Understands the role of social institutions (e.g., family, religion, educational system) in meeting basic societal needs.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the roles of men, women, children, and families in historical and contemporary cultures.
- Understands ways in which socialization, cultural values, and norms vary across space and time and influence relationships within and among groups.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the history and theoretical foundations of psychology.
- Demonstrates knowledge of behavioral, social, cognitive, and personality perspectives of human learning.
- Understands basic psychological principles and processes, including those related to motivation, sensation and perception, personality, relationships
- between biology and behavior, and relationships between the self and others.
Domain 4 Competency 014 (Democratic Principles and Government in the United States)
The teacher understands the principles of democratic government and the structure and functioning of government in the United States.
The beginning teacher:
- Analyzes the beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution (e.g., republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, individual rights) and other important historical documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, Federalist Papers, English Bill of Rights).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the structure and functions of the government created by the U.S. Constitution (e.g., bicameral structure of Congress, role of congressional committees, constitutional powers of the president, role of the Cabinet and independent executive agencies, functions of the federal court system).
- Analyzes the processes by which the U.S. Constitution can be changed.
- Knows procedures for enacting laws in the United States.
- Analyzes changes in the role of the U.S. government over time (e.g., civil rights, New Deal legislation, wartime policies).
- Understands changing relationships among the three branches of the federal government (e.g., Franklin D. Roosevelt's attempt to increase the number of U.S.
- Supreme Court justices, War Powers Act, judicial review).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the impact of Constitutional amendments on U.S. society (e.g., Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, Nineteenth, Twentyfourth, and Twenty-sixth amendments).
- Analyzes the impact of landmark Supreme Court decisions on U.S. society (e.g., Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Cherokee Nation v. Georgia,
- Dred Scott v. Sanford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, Miranda v. Arizona, Roe v. Wade, Regents of the University of
- California v. Bakke).
- Understands the relationship between the states and the national government of the United States (i.e., federalism).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the structure and functions of Texas state government and local governments.
Domain 4 Competency 015 (Citizenship and Political Processes in the United States)
The teacher understands political processes in the United States and the rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens.
The beginning teacher:
- Understands the historical and contemporary roles played by political parties, interest groups, and the media in the U.S. political system.
- Demonstrates knowledge of processes for filling elective and appointive public offices (e.g., primary system, electoral college).
- Demonstrates knowledge of processes for making policy in the United States and ways in which different points of view influence decision making and the
- development of public policy at the local, state, and national levels.
- Understands rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution, (e.g., due process, equal protection) and their role in protecting individual liberties.
- Demonstrates knowledge of efforts to expand the democratic process in the United States, and understands the contributions of significant political and social
- leaders (e.g., George Washington, John Marshall, Frederick Douglass, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Martin Luther King, Jr.).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the causes and effects of major reform movements in U.S. history (e.g., abolitionist movement, public education, temperance,
- women's rights, prison reform, civil rights movement).
- Understands civic responsibilities (e.g., jury duty), the difference between personal and civic responsibilities, and the importance of voluntary individual participation in the U.S. political process.
Domain 4 Competency 016 (Types of Political Systems)
The teacher understands the development of political systems and the similarities and differences among major historical and contemporary forms of government.
The beginning teacher:
- Understands major political ideas in history (e.g., natural law, natural rights, divine right of monarchs, social contract theory), and analyzes the historical
- development of significant legal and political concepts.
- Demonstrates knowledge of significant political documents in world history (e.g., Hammurabi's Code, Justinian's Code of Laws, Magna Carta, John Locke's
- Two Treatises of Government) and their impact on the development of political thought.
- Analyzes how governments have affected and reflected cultural values and provided for social control.
- Understands similarities and differences between the U.S. system of government and other political systems.
- Demonstrates knowledge of major forms of government in history (e.g., monarchy, authoritarian government, classical republic, liberal democracy, totalitarian government) and of the historical antecedents of major political systems.
- Analyzes the process by which democratic-republican government evolved (e.g., beginnings in classical Greece and Rome, developments in England,
- impact of the Enlightenment).
Domain 5 Competency 017 (Economic Concepts and Types of Economic Systems)
The teacher understands basic economic concepts, major developments in economic thought, and various types of economic systems.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of the concepts of scarcity and opportunity costs and their significance.
- Understands the circular-flow model of the economy.
- Analyzes interactions among supply, demand, and price and factors that cause changes in supply, demand, and price, and interprets supply-and-demand graphs.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the historical origins of contemporary economic systems (e.g., capitalism, socialism, communism), including the influence of
- various economic philosophers such as John Maynard Keynes, Karl Marx, and Adam Smith.
- Understands traditional, command, and market economic systems in different places and eras.
- Understands and compares types of market structures (e.g., pure competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, monopoly).
- Demonstrates knowledge of concepts and issues related to international trade (e.g., absolute and comparative advantage, effects of changes in the exchange rate of world currencies, free trade and the effects of trade barriers).
Domain 5 Competency 018 (Structure and Operation of the U.S. Free Enterprise System)
- The teacher understands the structure and operation of the U.S. free enterprise system, the role of government, business, consumers, and labor in the system, and
- basic concepts of consumer economics.
The beginning teacher:
- Analyzes the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States, and understands the basic principles of the U.S. free enterprise system
- (e.g., profit motive, voluntary exchange, private property rights, competition).
- Analyzes issues and developments related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to the present (e.g., Sherman Antitrust Act; tariff policies; economic effects
- of World War I, World War II, and the Cold War; increased globalization of the economy).
- Understands and compares types of business ownership (e.g., sole proprietorships, partnerships, corporations).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the role of financial institutions in saving, investing, and borrowing.
- Analyzes the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system (e.g., significance of government rules and regulations, impact of fiscal and monetary policy decisions, role and function of the Federal Reserve System, relationship between government policies and international trade).
- Demonstrates knowledge of the goals of economic growth, stability, full employment, freedom, security, equity, and efficiency as they apply to U.S. economic policy.
- Understands the rights and responsibilities of consumers, labor, and business in the U.S. free enterprise system.
- Demonstrates knowledge of basic concepts of consumer economics (e.g., factors involved in decisions to acquire goods and services, means by which savings can be invested, risks and rewards of various investment options).
Domain 5 Competency 019 (Science, Technology, and Society)
- The teacher understands major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations and the societal significance of these discoveries and
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations have affected societies throughout history.
- Traces the spread of ideas in mathematics, science, and technology from the Greco-Roman, Indian, Islamic, and Chinese civilizations to other civilizations.
- Demonstrates knowledge of the contributions of significant scientists and inventors (e.g., Copernicus, Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton, Marie Curie, Thomas
- Edison, Albert Einstein, Robert Fulton).
- Analyzes connections between major developments in science and technology and the growth of industrial economies and societies in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries.
- Demonstrates knowledge of how specific developments in science and technology have affected the economic development of the United States (e.g., cotton gin, Bessemer steel process, electric power, telegraph and
- telephone, railroad, petroleum-based products, computers).
- Analyzes moral and ethical issues related to changes in science and technology.
- Analyzes the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United States (e.g., radio, television, automobile, polio vaccine).
Domain 6 Competency 020 (Social Studies Foundations and Skills)
The teacher understands social studies terminology and concepts; the philosophical foundations of social science inquiry; relationships among and between social science disciplines and other content areas; and skills for resolving conflicts, solving problems, and making decisions in social studies contexts.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of the philosophical foundations of social science inquiry.
- Uses social studies terminology correctly.
- Knows how knowledge generated by the social science disciplines affects society and people's lives, understands practical applications of social studies education, and knows how to use social studies information and ideas to study social phenomena.
- Understands how social science disciplines relate to each other and to other content areas.
- Knows how to use problem-solving processes to identify problems, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement solutions, and evaluate the effectiveness of solutions.
- Knows how to use decision-making processes to identify situations that require decisions, gather and analyze information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement decisions.
Domain 6 Competency 021 (Sources of Social Studies Information; Interpreting and Communicating
The teacher understands sources of social studies information and knows how to interpret and communicate social studies information in various forms.
The beginning teacher:
- Demonstrates knowledge of characteristics and uses of primary and secondary sources (e.g., databases, maps, photographs, documents, biographies, interviews, questionnaires, artifacts).
- Evaluates the validity of social studies information from primary and secondary sources and identifies bias (e.g., assessing source validity on the basis of language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author).
- Assesses multiple points of view and frames of reference relating to social studies issues, and knows how to support a point of view on a social studies
- issue or event.
- Organizes and interprets information from outlines, reports, databases, narratives, literature, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
- Knows how to use maps and other graphics to present geographic, political, historical, economic, and cultural features, distributions, and relationships.
- Uses maps to obtain and analyze data for solving locational problems and to answer questions, infer relationships, and analyze spatial change.
- Communicates and interprets social studies information in written, oral, and visual forms, and translates information from one medium to another (e.g., written to visual, statistical to written or visual).
- Analyzes various economic indicators to describe and measure levels of economic activity.
- Uses economic models such as production-possibilities curves, circular-flow charts, and supply-and-demand graphs to analyze economic data.
Domain 6 Competency 022 (Social Studies Research)
- The teacher understands social science and historical research methods, including procedures for formulating research questions and for organizing, analyzing,
- evaluating, and reporting information.
The beginning teacher:
- Knows how to formulate research questions.
- Uses appropriate procedures to reach supportable judgments and conclusions in social studies.
- Understands social studies research and knows how social scientists and historians locate, gather, organize, analyze, interpret, and report information using standard research methodologies.
- Knows how to analyze social studies information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying associations and cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
- Analyzes social studies data using basic mathematical and statistical concepts and other analytical methods.
Domain 6 Competency 023 (Social Studies Instruction and Assessment)
- The teacher understands the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) in social studies; knows how to plan and implement effective social studies instruction,
- including helping students make interdisciplinary connections and develop relevant reading skills; and knows procedures for assessing students' progress and needs in social studies.
The beginning teacher:
- Knows state content and performance standards for social studies that comprise the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), and understands the vertical alignment of social studies in the TEKS from grade level to grade level, including prerequisite knowledge and skills.
- Selects and uses developmentally appropriate instructional practices, activities, technologies, and materials to promote student knowledge, skills, and progress in social studies.
- Understands the appropriate use of technology as a tool for learning and communicating social studies concepts, and provides instruction on how to locate, retrieve, and retain content-related information from a range of texts and technologies.
- Uses a variety of instructional strategies to ensure all students' reading comprehension of content-related texts, including helping students link the content of texts to their lives and connect related ideas across different texts.
- Provides instruction on how to locate the meanings and pronunciations of unfamiliar content-related words using appropriate sources, such as dictionaries, thesauruses, atlases, and glossaries.
- Knows how to provide instruction that makes connections between knowledge and methods in social studies and in other content areas.
- Provides instruction that models and promotes understanding of various points of view.
- Demonstrates knowledge of forms of assessment appropriate for evaluating students' progress and needs in social studies.
- Uses multiple forms of assessment and knowledge of the TEKS to determine students' progress and needs and to help plan instruction in social studies.