Sociologists study society in regards to emerging social patterns, social interactions, social stratifications, culture, social problems, communication, etc. Sociologist use qualitative (interview based) and quantitative research as well as other means of studying various subject areas. Here are a few different areas of study within the discipline: Inequality, Deviance, Gender studies, Disaster, Conflict, Stratification, Education, Religion, Diversity, Gerontology, etc.
One can study just about anything as a Sociologist. In UNIVERSITY one would study the basics that include but are NOT confined to the following: The founders of SOCI (Comte, Spencer, Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Simmel) as well as: Basic SOCI approaches (micro, macro, ethno., exchange, etc.), A brief intro to research methodology, Culture (components, diversity, etc), Social structure (institutions, stratification, etc.), Socialization, Deviance (basic), Demography will also find its way into many chapters through birth rates, etc.), Paradigms (conflict, structural functionalist, symbolic interactionalist)