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2012-12-04 17:03:40
prescott microbiology chapter 36

chapter 36 notes from prescott's microbiology
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  1. epidemiology
    science that evaluates occurence, determinants, distribution, and control of health and disease in a defined human population
  2. sporadic disease
    occurs occasionally and at irregular intervals
  3. endemic disease: 
    maintains a relatively steady low-level frequency at a moderately regular interval
  4. outbreak vs epidemic vs pandemic
    • sudden occurance
    • sudden increase 
    • increase of occurence within large populations
  5. how disease frequency is measured
    • prevalence rate
    • morbidity rate
    • mortality rate
  6. prevalence rate
    total number of individuals infected at any one time
  7. morbidity rate
    number of new cases in a specific time perioud per unit of population
  8. mortality rate
    number of deaths from a disease per number of cases of the disease
  9. how are disease cases recongnized
    by the characteristic disease syndrome: set of signs and symptoms characterisic of a disease
  10. signs vs symptoms
    • objectve changes in body observed
    • subjective changes experienced
  11. remote sensing
    gathering of digital images of earth's surface from satelites and trasnforming data into maps
  12. geographic iformation system
    data management system that organizes and displays digital map data from RS
  13. periods of infectious disease
    • incubation - pathogen entry but no symptoms
    • prodromal - symptoms
    • perioud of illness - climax of disease
    • convalescence - symptoms begin to disseappear
  14. goal of infectious disease epemiology
    determine causative agen and the source of the disease as well as its mechanism for transmission and factors that help it
  15. herd immunity
    infection hard to spread because a large percentage of the population is immune
  16. antigenic shift vs antigenic drift
    big change in atigenic character vs smaller change
  17. Metonds of finding causative pathogens
    • koch's postulates
    • clinical microbiology lab
  18. communicable disease
    can be transmitted from one host to another
  19. active carrier
    overt clinical case of the disease
  20. convalescent carrier 
    has recovered but continues to harbor large numbers of pathogen
  21. zoonoes
    numerous diseases of animal resevoirs
  22. vectors
    oragnisms that spread disease from one host to another
  23. four main routes of transmission for a pathogen
    • airborne
    • contact
    • vehicle
    • vector-borne
  24. droplet nuclei
    small particles that can remain airborne for a long time and travel long distances
  25. vehicles
    inanimate materials or objects involved in pathogen transmission
  26. common vehicle transmission
    single vehicle spreads to multiple hosts (i.e. water, food)
  27. fomites
    comomn vehicles such as surgical instruments, bedding, and eating utensils
  28. vector
    mostly arthropods or vertebrates that can transmit disease
  29. external (mechanical) transmission
    • passive carriage of pathogen on body of vector
    • pathogen doensn't grow on it
  30. internal transmission
    carried within vector
  31. harborage transmission - 
    pathogen does not undergo changes within vector
  32. biologic transmission
    pathogen undergoes changes within vector
  33. active escape
    movement of pathogen to portal of exit
  34. passive escape
    excretion in feces, urine droplets, saliva, or desquamated cells
  35. nosocomial infections
    are from pathogens that develop within a hostpital or a clinical care facility and are acquired by patients while they are in the facility
  36. endogenous pathogen
    brought into hospital by patient or acquired when patient is colonized after admission
  37. exogenous pathogen 
    microbiota other than the patient's
  38. autogenous infection
    caused by patient's owm microbiota, but it is not known if the infectious microbe was aaquired before or after admission
  39. ways to control epidemics
    • reduce or eliminate source of infection
    • break connection between source and individual
    • reduce number of susptible individuals
  40. vaccine: 
    microbial intigen used to induce protective immunity
  41. whole cell vaccines
    most current vaccines against bacteria and virueses oncist of whole microbes that are either inactiveated or attenuated
  42. adjuvants
    • a nontoxic materal that prolongs antigen interaction with immune cells
    • stimulates immunes response to the antigen
  43. serum
    part of blood that remains after cells and clotting factors have been removed (called antiserum when obtained from immunized host due to antibodies)
  44. acellular or subunite vaccines
    specfic, purifed macromolecules form pathogenic microbes
  45. recombinant vector vaccines
    pathogen genese for major antigens are inserted into nonvirulent vectors that express the inserted gene
  46. 1984 dalles
    1996 texas
    • salmonella restaurant
    • shigella in a hospitol lab
    • anthrax through mail