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2012-12-06 00:13:36
Anthropology from

Anthropology Final
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  1. Ethnocentrism
    judging other cultures using one's own cultural standards
  2. Participant Observation
    characteristic procedure of ethnography:

    taking part in community life as research is conducted
  3. Etic
    scientist - oriented research strategy that focuses on the ethnographer's explainations and categories
  4. Emic
    native - oriented research strategy that focuses on the locals' explainations and meanings
  5. Qualitative Data
  6. Daughter Language
    languages sharing a common parent language
  7. Protolanguage
    Language ancestral to several daughter languages
  8. Domestic - Public Dichotomy
    strong differentiation between the home and the outside world

    work at home versus more valued work outside
  9. Mana
    belief in immanent supernatural domain or life force, potentially subject to human manipulation
  10. Polynesian
    ___ mana and taboo are related to the more hierarchial nature of ___ society.
  11. Rites of Passage
    a set of actions marking transitions between stages in life
  12. Separation
    withdrawl from a group and moving from one place to another
  13. Melanesian Mana
    a sacred, impersonal force much like the Western concept of luck
  14. Westernization
    the acculturative influence of Western expansion on local cultures worldwide.
  15. Autochthon
    one of the original or earliest known inhabitants of a country or region
  16. Ontological Categories
    different kinds (or ways) of being
  17. Diaspora
    offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
  18. Ambilineal Descent
    "flexible" descent rule, neither matrilineal nor patrilineal
  19. Cosmology
    a system for understanding the universe
  20. Totemism
    religion that uses nature as a model for society

    form of cosmology
  21. Ethnicity
    identification with an ethnic group
  22. Foraging
    Hunter - Gathering (aka ___)
  23. Horticulture
    uses a slash - and - burn technique using simple tools (hoes and digging sticks)

    Nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing (unseeded for a season or more)  
  24. State - Level Society
    autonomous political society with social classes and formal government based on law
  25. Pastoralism
    Animal Herding (aka ___)
  26. Age Set System
    unisex (usually male) political group; includes everyone born within a certain time span

    (from the Plains)
  27. Big Man System
    Generous tribal entrepreneur with multivillage support

    - earned status
  28. Animism
    belief in souls or doubles that derives from the first attempt to explain dreams and like phenomena
  29. Magic
    a set of supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims
  30. Communitas
    intense feeling of social solidarity
  31. Handsome Lake
    Example of ethnocide

    1800 Native American Indian (Iroquois) religion from New York State.

    Became heavy drinkers and faught among themselves until their "founder" had a vision.  They adopted European farming techniques, men became the laborers, and they gave up group living and matrilineal descent for more permanent nuclear families
  32. Identity
    a person's background and also how you can refer to a person

    one's own sense of their culture
  33. Nuclear Family
    family consisting of only the parents and child(ren)

    central for foraging and industrial societies
  34. Essentialism
    process of viewing identities as established and unchanging to hide the historical processes and politics within which that identity developed
  35. Acculturation
    an exchange of cultural features between groups in first-hand contact
  36. Evolution of Religion (Tylor)
    religion evolved through stages

    - religion would decline as science came to offer better explainations for things
  37. Ascribed Status
    social status (i.e. race/gender) that people have little or no control over
  38. Gender
    cultural construction of whether one is male, female, or something else
  39. Gender Roles
    the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex
  40. Gender Stereotypes
    oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females
  41. Matrilineal Descent
    descent traced through women only 
  42. Patrilineal Descent
    descent traced through men only
  43. Matrilocal
    married couples live with the wife's family and children grow up in the mother's village
  44. Patrilocal
    married couples live with the husband's family and children grow up in the father's village
  45. Neolocal
    married couple makes a new place of residence rather than living with/near either one's parents
  46. Cargo Cult
    postcolonial, acculturative religious movements in Melanesia

    attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior
  47. Postmodernism
    blurring and breakdown of established rules/standards
  48. Ritual (Book)
    behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; held at set times and places and have liturgical orders
  49. Ritual (PPT)
    Formal - stylized, repetitive, stereotyped behavior, based on a liturgical order
  50. Liminality
    a period during which the participant has left one place but not yet entered the next
  51. Climate Change
    global warming plus changing sea levels, precipitation, storms, and ecosystem effects
  52. Cultural Imperialism
    the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others
  53. Band
    basic unit of social organization among foragers

    fewer than 100 people

    usually splits up seasonally
  54. Tribe
    form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism

    no socioeconomic stratification or centralized rule

    No means to enforce political decisions
  55. Chiefdom
    form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state

    kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure
  56. State
    sociopolitical organization based on central government and socioeconomic stratification
  57. Morgan
    19th Century

    ___ assumed that human society had evolved through a series of 3 stages: Savagry, Barbarism, Civilization

    Unilinear Evolutionism: ___ assumed there was one path through which all societies had to evolve.
  58. Tylor
    19th Century

    ___ developed his own evolutionary approach to the anthropology of religion.

    ___ proposed a unilinear path: from animism, polytheism, monotheism, to science
  59. Spencer
  60. Boas
    Cultural constructionist considered the father of American 4-Field Anthropology

    Historical Particularism

    1st to reject cross-culture study
  61. Benedict
    ___ stressed the idea that culture traits are uniquely patterned

    wrote: "Patterns of Culture"

  62. Mead
    Configurationalist who was particularly interested in how cultures varied in their patterns of enculturation.

    "Coming of Age in Samoa"
  63. Durkheim
    Social Constructionist who developed a social science called: Collective Consiousness

    Social order cannot be explained from self-interest

    cooperation and cohesion are achieved through controling systems of belief
  64. Malinowski
    Needs Functionalism

    ___ believed that humans had a set of universal biological needs, and that customs developed to fulfill those needs.

    father of ethnography: believed that all customs and institutions were integrated and interrelated
  65. Brown
    Structural Functionalism: ___ believed that social practices function to preserve the social structure

    *Believed societies should be studied as they exist today rather than across time*
  66. White
    ___'s approach has been called general evolution, the idea that over time and through the archaeological, historical, and ethnographic records, we can see the evolution of culture as a whole.

    Realized that particular cultures might not evolve in the same direction
  67. Steward
    ___ proposed a different evolutionary model, called multilinear evolution.

    Showed how cultures evolved over several different lines.

    Pioneered ecological anthropology: considered relationships between cultures and environmental variables
  68. Kroeber

    ___ called the cultural realm the superorganic.

    saw culture as the basis of a new science

    used alternating trends to demonstrate the power of culture over the individual
  69. Harris
    Cultural Materialism

    ___ proposed the idea that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure

    Insisted that anthropology is a science
  70. Turner
    member of the Manchester School - interested in conflict and its resolution

    saw it as an essectial part of cultural dynamics

    recognized links between symbolic anthropology and other fields (psychology)
  71. Geertz
    ___ pioneered Interpretive Anthropology - study of a culture as a system of meaning

    "grasp the native's point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world"
  72. Leach
    ___ focused on how individuals work to achieve power and how their actions can transform society

    "creative role of the individual in transforming culture"

    brought process to the formal models of structural functionalism
  73. Levi-Strauss
    Structuralism - human minds have certain universal characteristics that lead people to think similarly regardless of their background

    ___ aims to discover relations, themes, and connections among aspects of culture
  74. Mintz and Wolf
    world-system theory/ political economy

    ___ and ___ viewed local people in the context of world-system events 
  75. Gramsci
    ___ developed the concept of hegemony for a stratefied social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers' values and accepting domination as "natural."