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judging other cultures using one's own cultural standards
characteristic procedure of ethnography:
taking part in community life as research is conducted
scientist - oriented research strategy that focuses on the ethnographer's explainations and categories
native - oriented research strategy that focuses on the locals' explainations and meanings
languages sharing a common parent language
Language ancestral to several daughter languages
Domestic - Public Dichotomy
strong differentiation between the home and the outside world
work at home versus more valued work outside
belief in immanent supernatural domain or life force, potentially subject to human manipulation
___ mana and taboo are related to the more hierarchial nature of ___ society.
Rites of Passage
a set of actions marking transitions between stages in life
withdrawl from a group and moving from one place to another
a sacred, impersonal force much like the Western concept of luck
the acculturative influence of Western expansion on local cultures worldwide.
one of the original or earliest known inhabitants of a country or region
different kinds (or ways) of being
offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
"flexible" descent rule, neither matrilineal nor patrilineal
a system for understanding the universe
religion that uses nature as a model for society
form of cosmology
identification with an ethnic group
Hunter - Gathering (aka ___)
uses a slash - and - burn technique using simple tools (hoes and digging sticks)
Nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing (unseeded for a season or more)
State - Level Society
autonomous political society with social classes and formal government based on law
Animal Herding (aka ___)
Age Set System
unisex (usually male) political group; includes everyone born within a certain time span
(from the Plains)
Big Man System
Generous tribal entrepreneur with multivillage support
- earned status
belief in souls or doubles that derives from the first attempt to explain dreams and like phenomena
a set of supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims
intense feeling of social solidarity
Example of ethnocide
1800 Native American Indian (Iroquois) religion from New York State.
Became heavy drinkers and faught among themselves until their "founder" had a vision. They adopted European farming techniques, men became the laborers, and they gave up group living and matrilineal descent for more permanent nuclear families
a person's background and also how you can refer to a person
one's own sense of their culture
family consisting of only the parents and child(ren)
central for foraging and industrial societies
process of viewing identities as established and unchanging to hide the historical processes and politics within which that identity developed
an exchange of cultural features between groups in first-hand contact
Evolution of Religion (Tylor)
religion evolved through stages
- religion would decline as science came to offer better explainations for things
social status (i.e. race/gender) that people have little or no control over
cultural construction of whether one is male, female, or something else
the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex
oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females
descent traced through women only
descent traced through men only
married couples live with the wife's family and children grow up in the mother's village
married couples live with the husband's family and children grow up in the father's village
married couple makes a new place of residence rather than living with/near either one's parents
postcolonial, acculturative religious movements in Melanesia
attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior
blurring and breakdown of established rules/standards
behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; held at set times and places and have liturgical orders
Formal - stylized, repetitive, stereotyped behavior, based on a liturgical order
a period during which the participant has left one place but not yet entered the next
global warming plus changing sea levels, precipitation, storms, and ecosystem effects
the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others
basic unit of social organization among foragers
fewer than 100 people
usually splits up seasonally
form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism
no socioeconomic stratification or centralized rule
No means to enforce political decisions
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state
kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure
sociopolitical organization based on central government and socioeconomic stratification
___ assumed that human society had evolved through a series of 3 stages: Savagry, Barbarism, Civilization
Unilinear Evolutionism: ___ assumed there was one path through which all societies had to evolve.
___ developed his own evolutionary approach to the anthropology of religion.
___ proposed a unilinear path: from animism, polytheism, monotheism, to science
Cultural constructionist considered the father of American 4-Field Anthropology
1st to reject cross-culture study
___ stressed the idea that culture traits are uniquely patterned
wrote: "Patterns of Culture"
Configurationalist who was particularly interested in how cultures varied in their patterns of enculturation.
"Coming of Age in Samoa"
Social Constructionist who developed a social science called: Collective Consiousness
Social order cannot be explained from self-interest
cooperation and cohesion are achieved through controling systems of belief
___ believed that humans had a set of universal biological needs, and that customs developed to fulfill those needs.
father of ethnography: believed that all customs and institutions were integrated and interrelated
Structural Functionalism: ___ believed that social practices function to preserve the social structure
*Believed societies should be studied as they exist today rather than across time*
___'s approach has been called general evolution, the idea that over time and through the archaeological, historical, and ethnographic records, we can see the evolution of culture as a whole.
Realized that particular cultures might not evolve in the same direction
___ proposed a different evolutionary model, called multilinear evolution.
Showed how cultures evolved over several different lines.
Pioneered ecological anthropology: considered relationships between cultures and environmental variables
___ called the cultural realm the superorganic.
saw culture as the basis of a new science
used alternating trends to demonstrate the power of culture over the individual
___ proposed the idea that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure
Insisted that anthropology is a science
member of the Manchester School - interested in conflict and its resolution
saw it as an essectial part of cultural dynamics
recognized links between symbolic anthropology and other fields (psychology)
___ pioneered Interpretive Anthropology - study of a culture as a system of meaning
"grasp the native's point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world"
___ focused on how individuals work to achieve power and how their actions can transform society
"creative role of the individual in transforming culture"
brought process to the formal models of structural functionalism
Structuralism - human minds have certain universal characteristics that lead people to think similarly regardless of their background
___ aims to discover relations, themes, and connections among aspects of culture
Mintz and Wolf
world-system theory/ political economy
___ and ___ viewed local people in the context of world-system events
___ developed the concept of hegemony for a stratefied social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers' values and accepting domination as "natural."