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2012-12-04 23:07:44
prescott microbiology chapter 38

chapter 38 notes for prescott's microbiology
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  1. legionnaires disease
    • gran negative
    • spread by air from an environmental reservior (a/c shower stalls) to human host
    • bacterium reproduction causes localized tissue destruction
    • fever, cough headace, neualgia
    • treat with antibiotics
  2. Tuberculosis
    • transmitted from person to person+animals
    • lung macrophages phagocytose often die trying to kill bacteria
    • composed of bacteria macrophages, t cells and human proteins
  3. changes in tuberculosis over time
    • caseous lesion -cheese like consistency
    • Ghon complexes - calcified caseous lesion
    • tuberculous cavities - tubercle that has liquefied and formed an air filled cavity from chiwhc bacteria can spread
  4. symptoms and course of tuberculosis
    • develop cell-mediated immunity
    • incubatoin period 4-12 weeks
    • fever fatigue, weight loss, cough (sometimes bloody)
  5. diganosis and treatment of TB
    • acid fast positive bacteria, chest x-ray
    • antimicrobial therapy 
    • prevention and control
  6. streptococcal diseases
    gram positive bacteria that are transmitted though respiratory droplets 
  7. treatment of streptococcal diseases
    • antibiotics
    • vaccines for pneumonia
    • prevention
  8. cellulitis
    diffuse, spreading infection of subcutaneous tissueredness and swelling
  9. impetigo
    • superficial cutaneous infection commonly seen in children
    • crusty lesions nad vesicles surrounded by a red border
  10. erysipelas
    • acute infection of dermal layer of skin
    • red patches that may occur periodically at same site for years
  11. invasive strep infections
    • caused by virulent strains of S. pyogenes
    • carry genes for exotoxins and tissue detorying protease
  12. necrotizing fasciitis
    • flesh eating disease
    • destroyes the sheath cover of skeletal muscle
    • galloping gangrene
    • invasive strep
  13. toxic shock like syndrome
    severe drop of blood pressure, failure of multiple organisms and high fever
  14. examples of postreptococcal diseases
    • bright's disease
    • rheumatic fever
  15. bright's disease
    • inflammatory kidney disease
    • swelling, fever, high blood pressure
    • could heal or be chronic
    • diagnosis is based on clinical history
    • treament with antibiotics
  16. Rheumatic fever
    • autoimmune disease involving heart valves and central nervous system
    • difficult to diagnose
    • treatment consists of therapy to decrease inflammation and salicylates (asprin)
  17. strep throat
    • infectin in through or tonsils
    • symptoms not diagnostic
    • redness, edema (swelling), enlarged lymph nodes in throat
  18. streptococcal pneumonia
    • opportunistic 
    • produces polysacchardie capsule and a toxin
    • alveolar spaces multiplies
    • only occurs in people with a predisposing conditoin
  19. lyme disease
    • transmitted from animal and ticks
    • Borrelia burgdorferi
  20. 3 stages of lyme disease
    • localized stage - skin lesions
    • disseminated stage - months later, neurological abnormalities, arthritis
    • late stage - demyellnation of neurons and Alzheimer's like symptoms
  21. lyme disease diagnosis and treatment
    • isolate bacterium and do PCR, serological tests
    • antibiotics in the early stages
  22. plague
    • gram negative spread by contact with flea infested animals
    • airborne transmission by people
    • subcutaneous hemorrhages, fever, and buboes
    • treatment; antibiotics
  23. direct contact diseases
    • most involve skin or underlying tissues
    • can become disseminated
  24. gas gangrene
    • clostridium perfringens
    • gram postive spore forming rod
    • produces gas gangrene a necrotizing infection of skeletal muscle and secretes toxins and tissue damaging enzymes
    • symptoms are pain and swelling, drainage, and muscle necrosis
    • diagnosed by recovering the pathogenic clostridia
    • treat with antitoxin and antibiotics, may have to amputate limbs
  25. peptic ulcer disease
    • colonizes gastric mucus secreting cells
    • produce urease which increases pH
    • damages stomach lining
    • treating with antibiotics and pH drugs
  26. staphlococcal diseases
    • gram positive cocci
    • normal inhabitants of upper respiratory tract, skin, intestines, and vagina
    • s. aureus pathogenic
    • s. epidermidis less pathogenic
  27. slime
    viscous extracellular glycoconjugate allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms
  28. localized abscess
    staphylococcal lesion when pathogen goes in hair follicle and make s a boil, inflammation and fluid
  29. toxic shock syndrome
    • cause by s. aureus straings that release TSS toxin
    • superimmune response
    • low blood pressure diarrhea, skin rash
  30. staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
    • cause s aureus straings with a plasmid borne gene for exfoliative toxin
    • skin peels revealing red underneath
    • diagnose by ID'ing staph
  31. Gonorrhea
    • gram - neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • disease of mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract
    • ureal disharge of yellow creamy pus and in women can spread to uterus
    • diagnose by culturing bacteria and oxidase test
    • treat with antibiotics
  32. syphillis
    • caused by motile spriochete treponema pollidum
    • diagnose clinical therapy and serology
    • treat with antimbiotics early and education for prevention
  33. 3 stages of syphillis
    • primary - chancre at the infection site
    • secondary - highly variable skin rash followed by latency
    • tertiary - formation of gumas in skin bone and nervous system
  34. tetanus
    • anaerobic gram positive spore former
    • found in soild, dust, hospitols, mammalian feces
    • produces tetanospasmin which casues the muscle spasm
    • treated with antibiotic and active immunizatino with toxoid
  35. gastroenteritis 
    inflammation of stomach and intestinal lining
  36. enterotoxins
    disrupt functioning of intenstinal mucosa causing nausea, vomiting, and/or dierreha
  37. botulism
    • caused by an obligately anearobic endosporeforming gram +
    • insufficiently heated canned food
  38. botulinum toxin
    neurotoxin that binds to synapses of motor neurons
  39. diagnosis and treatement of botulism
    • check waste for toxin
    • therapy and antitoxin along with safe food practices and no honey for babies
  40. cholera
    • gram negative
    • acqured from food contaminated by fecal matter
    • shellfish
    • makes you shit your brains out to dehydration
    • antibiotics and oral hydration therapy
  41. salmonellosis
    • gram negative non spore
    • transmitted to humans by contaminaed food
    • product enterotoxin and cytotoxin
    • abdominal pain cramps diarrhea nausea fever
    • isolate organism and treate with fluids
  42. enterohemorrhagic e. coli
    • produces effacing lesions leading to hemorrhagic colitis
    • cause kidney failure
  43. sepsis
    systemic response to a microbial infection
  44. septic shock
    sepsis associated with severe hypotension, caused by endotoxin 
  45. zoonotic diseases
    disease that humans get from animals
  46. cutaneous anthrax
    • infection through a cut or abrasion of skin
    • antibiotic therapy
  47. pulmonary anthrax
    • woolsorter's disease
    • inhalation of endospores
    • resembles influenza
    • fatal if bacteria gets in blood stream
  48. demineralization/remineralization cycle
    • acid production leads to the release of calcium and phosphate from enamel followed by remineralization
    • too much demineralization and you get caries
  49. periodontal disease
    diverse group of diseases that affect periodontium
  50. periodontitis
    • initial inflamatory response to plaque bacteria and tissue destruction
    • leads to swelling of tissue and formation of periodontal pockets
  51. periodontosis
    bone destruction caused by colonization of periodontal pockets
  52. gingivitis
    inflammation of gingiva caused by colonization of periodontal pockets