A & P 1 lecture

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s.dorrance1
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A & P 1 lecture
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2012-12-05 15:22:51
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Special Senses Glands
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Special senses and glands
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  1. Special senses have what?
    Special nerurons that send enhanced messages to the brain to be analyzed
  2. Why do we call them special senses?
    Because they only occur in one place in the body
  3. What kind of cells are special senses?
    bipolar neurons
  4. What senses do your special senses include?
    Taste, smell, hearing and sight
  5. Why do we stop smelling after a certain period of time?
    We have what is called olfactory fatigue where you only smell things a few times and then the messages no longer get sent to the brain
  6. What part of the nerve picks up sensory information?
    Dendrites
  7. Where do the axons of the neurons go in the special sense of smell?
    They project through the small holes in the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulbs
  8. Where do the olfactory tracts go to?
    the Cerebral cortex
  9. Each different smell is considered what?
    a chemical
  10. What does the chemical message (scent) do in regards to the brain?
    Opens the sodium doorway which creates an electrical message to go to the brain.
  11. Explain the process of how we smell.
    Airborne molecules enter the nasal cavity and are dissolved in the fluid of the epithelium. Molecules then bind to a chemoreceptor. This allows gates to open allowing NA+ into the cell causing depolarization of the neuron
  12. What is a chemoreceptor?
    It is a receptor that only chemicals will bind to.
  13. What is another term for the sense of taste?
    Gustatory Sensation
  14. What do you have to have in order to taste?
    1. Have olfactory input 2. Has to be in a liquid state (dissolved) 3. Papillae 4. Taste buds
  15. What are papillae?
    Little bumps (neurons) found on the tongue.
  16. What are the 4 types of Papillae?
    • 1. Vallate-V shaped/big
    • 2. Fungiform-dark red, mushroom shaped
    • 3. Foliate-Look like leaves (has best taste receptors)
    • 4. Filiform-Most abundant, no taste receptors here, looks like a filament in a light bulb
  17. ___________ are not found on majority of papillae.
    Taste buds
  18. Pinna
    Acts like a funnel and pulls in soundwaves (outter ear)
  19. External auditory canal
    Takes soundwaves down toward the middle ear
  20. Tympanic membrane
    Ear drum, vibrates
  21. What are the three parts of the external ear?
    Pinna, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane
  22. What are the parts of the middle ear?
    Ear ossicles, Oval window, Eustacian tube
  23. Ear Ossicles
    Malleus, incus, stapes
  24. Where is the malleus located?
    Closest to membrane
  25. How do you describe the stapes?
    Looks like Sturrup
  26. Oval Window
    Oval hole that leads soundwaves into the cochlea
  27. Where are all receptors for hearing?
    In the Cochlea
  28. Where does the eustacian tube lead?
    Back of the throat (leads fluids here)
  29. Why do children need to have tubes put in their ears?
    The Eustacian tube is flat so all water stays behind the eardrum and puts a lot of pressure on the eardrum until it breaks. The eardrum can heal on its own.
  30. When do children no longer need tubes in their ears?
    As they grow taller the eustacian tube begins to angle downward.
  31. What can effect hearing after your eardrum has broken, then healed?
    Scar tissue on ear drum will effect hearing because the eardrum will vibrate differently so we may not be able to hear certain sounds or pitches.
  32. What can you get if you eardrum doesnt heal on its own?
    Skin graft of th ear, it is a difficult surgery and hearing would also be different.
  33. What are the parts of the inner ear?
    Cochlea, Round window, Semicircular canals, vestibule, vestibulocochlear nerve
  34. Cochlea
    Snail, all recepters for hearing are here. Organs of Corti are located inside cochlea.
  35. Round Window
    How soundwaves leave cochlea so we don't continue to hear the same thing.
  36. Semicircular canals
    Dynamic equilibrium (moving equilibrium) fluid in these with little hairs that move.
  37. Vestibule
    Deals with static equilibrium (standing still equilibrium)
  38. Vestibulocochlear nerve
    • Two nerves
    • -Cochlear nerve-takes all info to the brain (hearing)
    • -Vestibular nerve-comes out of the vestibule (equilibrium)
  39. Volume
    Loud vs. soft
  40. Pitch
    High vs. low
  41. What kind of sounds do tall soundwaves make?
    Loud noises
  42. What kind of sounds to short soundwaves make?
    Quiet noises
  43. What kind of sounds do close together soundwaves make?
    Higher pitched noises
  44. What kind of sounds to distant soundwaves make?
    Lower pitched noises
  45. External structures of the eye
    Extrinsic eye muscles, Eyelashes, Eyebrows, Lacrimal glands, Eyelids
  46. Extrinsic eye muscles of the eye
    Moves eye left, right, up, and down.
  47. What causes a lazy eye?
    One of the extrinsic eye muscles are either stronger or weaker than the others which causes the person not to be able to keep the eye where we want it to be
  48. Eyelashes
    • Protects eye from anything coming in
    • -oil glands are hear
  49. What is a stye?
    Clogging of an oil gland in the eyelashes
  50. Eyebrows
    Keeps portion of the sun from coming into the eye, and also diverts sweat from the eye
  51. Lacrimal gland
    Tear ducts (Eyes water to get things out of the eye)
  52. Where do tears from the eye end up going?
    Into the nasal cavity
  53. What happens to your nose when you cry?
    You get stuffy because all of the tears from the eye goes to the nasal cavity
  54. Eyelids
    Blinking (reflex), brings water from top of eyelid to bottom
  55. What are the internal structures of the eye?
    Fibrous tunic, Neural tunic, Vascular tunic, photoreceptors
  56. What are the structures in the fibrous tunic?
    • Sclera-White part
    • Cornea-clear portion on the anterior surface of the eye
    • ---these areas are very tough
  57. What are the structures in the Vascular tunic?
    Choroid, iris, pupil, lens, ciliary body
  58. Choroid
    Has blood vessels (nutriends) nice and dark so it absorbs light
  59. Iris
    color of your eye, muscle that controls how big or small pupil is
  60. Lens
    Bends light, changes shape
  61. Ciliary body
    Changes shape of the lens (muscle)
  62. What are the structures in the neural tunic?
    Retina, Macula Lutea, optic nerve, optic disc, anterior cavity, posterior cavity
  63. Retina
    Contains nerves for eyesight called photorecepters
  64. What are the two types of photoreceptors and describe them.
    • Rods-Work in low light, black/white, crude images (no fine detail) Has rhodopsin
    • Cones-Color, lots of light. Has Iodopsin
  65. Macula Lutea
    Has highest number of photoreceptors. If lens reflects light to hit this place exactly, you will have 20/20 vision.
  66. Macular degeneration
    Neurons will degenerate and will cause blindness (deals with the macula lutea)
  67. Explain a detached retina.
    It detaches from the choroid so we do not absorb as much light so we see stars and brights spots when we should not
  68. Optic nerve
    Lets you see, takes message to occipital lobe
  69. Optic disc
    blind spot (no photoreceptors)
  70. Anterior Cavity
    (Front) Anything in front of the lens
  71. What kind of fluid is in the Anterior Cavity?
    Aqueous fluid
  72. Posterior cavity
    (Back) Anything behind the lens
  73. What kind of fluid is in the posterior cavity?
    Vitrious fluid (jellylike)
  74. Refraction
    Bending of light
  75. Glaucoma
    How much aqueoud fluid is in front of the eye. If there is more fluid there will be an increase in pressure
  76. Cataracts
    Cloudy lens, cannot easily bend light
  77. What occurs during cataracts surgery?
    You replace your lens with another
  78. Rhodopsin
    Opsin with retinal inside of it. When light enters the eye, retinal is released, opens the sodium doorway, so we get message of what we are seeing
  79. What is rhodopsin derived from?
    Vitamin A
  80. What makes iodopsin and rhodopsin different?
    They use different proteins
  81. Modified dendrite
    Part of photoreceptors; it is the light sensitive part of the rod and has 700 double layered membraneoud discs that just continue to fold over and over
  82. dopsines
    Have different amino acids so they are different proteins so rods see black/white, cones are color
  83. What causes the sodium channels to open for vision?
    At rest the retinal is bound to the inside of the opsin. When light strikes the cone, the retinal changes shape and detaches from the opsin. This causes the NA+ channels to open
  84. Endocrine Glands (technically speaking)
    Endocrine glands are secreted and picked up by the blood.. But in actuality this is not what happens. Not all hormones enter the blood, so we can give them different names
  85. True endocrine glands (endocrine glands)
    Hormone gets secreted and goes into the blood and travels that way
  86. Paracrine (endocrine glands)
    When you have tissue making it, it works on a neighbor cell
  87. Autocrine (endocrine glands)
    Makes it and works on itself
  88. Phermones (endocrine glands)
    Secrete hormones into the environment, women release hormones into environemtn and sync up period, dogs secrete hormones to let other dogs know they are in heat
  89. What are the chemial classification of hormones?
    • Proteins
    • Peptides
    • BiogenicAmines
    • Lipids
  90. How are hormones classified by?
    What they look like
  91. What is a difference between a protein hormone or a fat hormone?
    How it finds its receptor
  92. Explain proteins as a hormone
    ex. insulin. Long chain of amino acids and folds into a ball
  93. Explain peptides as a hormone
    ex. oxytocin, still a protein but it doesn't fold
  94. Explain BiogenicAmines as a hormone
    ex. Thyroid, one single amino acid
  95. Explain lipids as a hormone
    ex. testerone, estrogen, stored to make food for later
  96. Chaperone proteins
    • 1. Keeps lipids from clumping together (cell will surround lipid to prevent clumping)
    • 2. Keep biogenicAmines from going directly into urine since they are so small
    • 3. Keep hormone levels constant in the blood (Make sure you do not have extreme high/low levels)
  97. Membrane bound receptors
    Receptor is on the membrane. Proteins attach to it (through a door)
  98. Fenestrations
    holes in the capillaries to allow proteins to get out
  99. Intracellular receptor
    Receptor is on the inside of the cell. Lipids attach to it (through the membrane)
  100. How are hormones controlled?
    Negative feedback loop
  101. What are the 3 ways a gland is told to secrete?
    • Nonhormonal regulation of hormone secretion
    • Neural regulation of hormones
    • Tropic
  102. Tropic
    One hormone influences the release of another hormone. Anterior pituitary tells the thyroid gland to release its hormone
  103. Non hormonal regulation of hormone secretion
    We look at concentrations in the blood. Change the extra-cellular concentration of a substance other than a hormone. When levels move, we have receptors watching it. ex. glucose
  104. Neural Regulation of hormones
    The neuron synapses with the gland, nervous system influences hormone secretion and the gland produces a hormone (sympathetic nervous system, adrenal gland)
  105. Tropic (One hormone influences the release of another hormone)
    Anterior pituitary tells the thyroid gland to release its hormone
  106. What is the direct link to the endocrine gland?
    Hypothalamus
  107. What are the two major sites where the nervous system and the endocrine system interact?
    Hypothalamus and the pituitar gland
  108. Hypothalamus
    • Releasing hormone-secrete a hormone to make pituitary work
    • Inhibitory hormone-secrete a hormone to make pituitar work
    • Oxytocin-Hypothalamus makes this and sends it to pituitary to store and use later
    • Anti-diuretic-makes people retain water within the body, regulates blood pressure. Hypothalamus makes and sends to pituitary to store and use later
  109. Posterior pituitary
    called neurohypophsis. It is an extension of the nervous system. The hypothalamus is connected to the posterior pituitary by the hypothalamopophysial tract (nervous tract). Sends all info by nervous system
  110. What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary?
    Anti-diuretic and oxytocin (Made in the hypothalamus, secreted by the pituitary)
  111. The anterior pituitary gland
    Also called hypothalmohypophysial. Portal system. Endocrine system, capillary network.
  112. What are the hormones that are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
    • Growth hormone
    • TSH(thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • LH(leutenizing hormone)
    • FSH(Follicle stimulating hormone)
    • ACTH(adrenatorticotropic hormone)
    • Prolactin
  113. Growth hormone
    grows tissues and cells
  114. TSH
    Goes to thyroid and tells it to work (tropic)
  115. LH
    Triggers a woman to ovulate
  116. FSH
    Matures sperm and egg
  117. What are the two reproduction hormones?
    FSH and LH
  118. ACTH
    goes to outside portion of the adrenal gland to release its hormone
  119. Prolactin
    Helps women in formulating milk
  120. What are some parts of the thyroid gland?
    Follicles and parapollicular cells
  121. What are two parts associated with the Follicles?
    T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine)
  122. Follicles
    Cell shaped like nice palls
  123. Parafollicular cells
    Cells that surround the follicle
  124. What do we see on parafollicular cells
    Calcitonin (regulates calcium levels)
  125. Where are the parathyroid glands usually found?
    Embedded in the posterior part of each lobe of the thyroid gland. On back of thyroid
  126. What does the parathyroid gland secrete
    parathyroid hormone
  127. What does the parathyroid gland do?
    Brings calcium levels back up from food and drink and works hand in hand with calcitonin
  128. The pancreas is both ____________ and ___________
    endocrine and exocrine
  129. What is the exocrine part of the pancreas
    The acini which produces pancreatic juices. It makes digestive enzymes into small intestines to break down food.
  130. What is the endocrine part of the pancreas?
    • The islets of langerhans
    • Alpha cell-glucagons
    • Beta cell-insulin (brings sugar into cell)
  131. What are some characteristics of someone who has diabetes?
    • Glucose in urine
    • Drinks and eats a lot
  132. Explain why diabetics pee and drink a lot
    Because there is sugar in the kidneys there is more water in the blood. Since water automatically flows from high to low water moves into the kidneys which means we have to get rid of some of those fluids so they will pee a lot and since the blood volume is going down they need to replenish that fluid into the blood so they drink a lot
  133. Where is the adrenal gland located?
    On top of the kidneys
  134. What are the two parts of the Adrenal Gland?
    Adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
  135. What is secreted by the adrenal medulla?
    Epinephrine (speeds everything up)
  136. What is the opposite of epinephrine?
    Norepinephrine (comes from sympathetic nervous system. Not secreted by the adrenal gland)
  137. What is secreted by the adrenal cortex?
    • Mineralcorticoids
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Androgens
  138. Mineralcorticoids
    Aldosterone-tells your body to put sodium back into capillary. Regulates blood pressure. Where sodium goes, water will follow.
  139. Glucocorticoids
    Cortisol
  140. Androgens
    Steroids-increase levels of testosterone in the body

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