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What are the four main functions of the muscular system?
- 1) Generate movement
- 2) Stabalise joints
- 3) Maintain posture4) Help regulate temperature control
- pumping of blood (back to the heart)storage of energy (glycogen)
What are the 3 main components of the muscular system?
- 1) Muscles
- 2) Tendons
- 3) Fascia
What is the sequence of muscle contraction?
- 1) Brain impulse
- 2) Spinal cord
- 3) Peripheral nerve
- 4) Muscle contracts
- 5) Tendon pulls on bone
- 6) Movement around that joint
What are the 3 types of muscle?
- 1) Smooth
- 2) Cardiac
- 3) Skeletal
Is smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary?
Where can smooth muscle be found?
Walls of internal vessels eg. arteries, intestines, oesophagus etc
What is smooth muscle responsible for?
Responsible for moving or stopping fluids and other materials.
Is cardiac muscle voluntary or involuntary?
What does cardiac muscle look like?
Striated (striped) - looks similar to voluntary muscle under a microscope.
What is cardiac muscle responsible for?
Produces the pump action of your heart.
Is skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary?
What does skeletal muscle look like?
What is skeletal muscle responsible for?
Enables movement of the skeleton.
What can a muscle do?
- 1) Contract (shorten)
- 2) Stop contracting (relax)
*muslces only pull, they do not push
What are the 3 types of muscle contraction?
- 1) Isometric
- Muscle contracts (is working) but no movement occurs eg. holding a stable plank.
- 2) IsotonicMuscle contracts and movement occurs.
- - Concentric is the positive half of the action - shortening (lifting against gravity)
- - Eccentric is the negative half of the action - lengthening (controlled decent in direction of gravity)
What is the difference between concentric and eccentric muscle action?
- 1) Concentric is the positive half of the action - shortening (lifting against gravity)
- 2) Eccentric is the negative half of the action - lengthening (controlled decent in direction of gravity)
List the 3 different types of muscle contraction from strongest to weakest.
- 1) Eccentric
- 2) Isometric
- 3) Concentric
What can muscles move?
Muscles can only move a joint which it crosses.
What are the four 'teams' of muscles?
- 1) Agonist - prime mover(s) (muscle(s) in agony?)
- 2) Antagonist - opposing muscle(s) (usually the relaxed muscle)
- 3) Synergist(s) - assists (symbiotic?)
- 4) Stabilisers (Fixators) - muscle(s) that are working in the exercise but are not the main mover(s) / taking part in the main movement.
What is an agonist?
The prime mover(s) in a movement (muscle(s) in agony?)
What is an antagonist?
The opposing muscle(s) in a movement (usually the relaxed muscle)
What is a Synergist?
Muscles that assist (symbiotic?)
What is a Stabiliser (Fixator)?
The muscle(s) that are working in the exercise but are not the main mover(s) / taking part in the main movement.
What are the 4 main muscle regions?
- 1) Muscle Belly
- 2) Attachment
- 3) Tendon
- 4) Fascia
What is the Muscle Belly?
Largest part of the muscle usually found in the middle.
What is the Attachment?
Where the muscle is attached to other structures (usually bone).
What are the 2 types of Attachment?
- 1) Origin - attachment whcih does not move or moves the least during exercise.
- 2) Insertion - attachment which moves the most during exercise.
What are 4 characteristics of a tendon?
- 1) Attaches muscle to bone.
- 2) Extension of muscle fascia
- 3) Very Strong - takes full force of muscle contraction.
- 4) Few or no nerve or blood vessels (takes longer to strengthen than muscle, could lead to injury)
What are 4 characteristics of fascia?
- 1) 2 types - superficial and deep.
- 2) Allows free movement.
- 3) Contains passageways for nerves and blood vessels to reach muscles.
- 4) Inelastic and strong.