Term 1 Integrative Cases
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Name 4 examples of nerve receptors in the skin
- Pacinian corpuscle: layered (onion-like), sense pressure and vibration
- Meissner's corpuscle: light touch (painting in histo lab)
- Merkel cells: connect to naked nerve endings
- Free nerve engins: pain and temperature sensation
What are the muscles for shoulder abduction? innervation?
Deltoid (mostly) and supraspinatus. Deltoid -axillary; supraspinatus - suprascapular
What muscles are involved in scapular retraction/protraction? innervation?
- Retraction: trapezius (CN XI); rhomboids (dorsal scapular nerve)
- protraction: serratus anterior (LTN)
Name muscles involved in abduction and adduction of fingers.
- Interosseous muscles:
- Dorsal ABduct (DAB)
- Palmar ADduct (PAD)
- all innervated by ulnar nerve.
name the three thenar muscles
abductor pollicis brevis, felxor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis
muscles involved in shoulder adduction and forearm flexion and extension.
Adduction: Latissimus dorsi (Thoracodorsal nerve); Pectoralis major (Lateral Pectoral nerve; Medial Pectoral nerve); Teres major (Lower Subscapular nerve)
Forearm Flexion: Biceps Brachii (Musculocutaneous nerve); Brachialis (Musculocutaneous nerve); Brachioradialis (Radial nerve)
Forearm Extension:Triceps Brachii (Radial nerve)
What movements is the shoulder capable of?
flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation
Name the muscles responsible for finger and wrist flexion
- Wrist Extension:
- Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brevis– Radial nerve – C6/C7/C8)
- Extensor Carpi Ulnaris – Radial – C7/C8
- Extensor Digitorum – Radial – also contributes to wrist extension (C7/C8)
- Finger Flexion:
- Flexor Digitorum Superficialis – flexes PIP and MCP joints – Median (C7/C8/T1)
- Flexor Digitorum Profundus – flexes DIP joint – Medial ½ = Ulnar (C8/T1); lateral ½ = Median (C8/T1).
- Lumbricals – flex MCP joint – lateral lumbricals (toward thumb) = Median (C8/T1); medial lumbricals (toward pinky (5th) digit) = Ulnar (C8/T1)
What are the three main gluteal bursae?
- trochanteric bursa (greater trochanter from IT band and sup. gluteus maximus)
- ischial bursa (glut max from ischeal tuberosity)
- gluteofemoral bursa (separate IT tract from vastus medialis attachment)
Which muscles are responsible for dorsiflexion
tibialis anterior, EDL, EHL, fibialis tertius, all innervated by common peroneal nerve
What is the target goal of hypertension treatment? What if the person has diabetes?
- without diabetes: 140/90
- with diabetes: 130/80 because people with diabetes are predisposed to artheriosclerosis
What factors determine arterial blood pressure
- peripheral resistance: increase in vascular tone will increase
- CO: increase in preload or contractility will increase
How does salt increase BP?
salt may cause fluid retention at the kidneys, which results in increased blood volume, increasing preload and cardiac output, therefore increasing BP
How does sympathetic and parasymp NS affect blood pressure at the level of (a) heart and (b) blood vessels
- (a) increased symp will increase HR and contractility increasing BP, parasymp will decrease HR slightly lowering BP
- (b) increased symp will vasoconstrict which will elevate BP, parasymp will vasodilate and decrease BP
List the muscles that help with forced inspiration
- Pec major and minor
- serratus anterior
- serratus posterior superior
muscles that help with forced expiration
rectus abdominus, internal and external obliques, serratus posterior inferior
Cells of the avleoli
- Type I - gas exchange
- Type II - secrete surfactant, can divide into type I
- Macrophages (dust cells) - injest particles and germs
- clara cells - surfactant and antiinflammatory
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