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what does sterilization get rid of
bacteria, molds/yeasts, viruses, protozoans
who found connection between childbed fever and washing hands after autopsy
what was the first to wash dressings with carbolic acid
what are the times and temps for boiling water, and what is still viable
- 10 min at 100 degrees C
- endospores and endotoxins
what is pasteurization used to destroy
salmonella, brucella, mycobacteria
What is HTST
high temp short time
what is HTST for pasteurization
15 sec at 72 degrees c
what is ultra high for pasteurization
several seconds at 140 degrees C then cool quickly
autoclave pressure, time, and temp?
15 pounds per square inch above atmosphere pressure, temp 121 C, time 15-20 mins
steps for autoclave?
- 1. cold air is removed
- 2. steam enters
- 3. condensation at 100 C
- 4. add more steam to increase pressure by 15 pounds per inch squared
- 5. temp 121 C for 15-20 mins
- 6. remove steam, replace w/ cool air
place test container in autoclave, after autoclaving crush ampule w/in container, place in incubator at 60 C for 24 hrs, look for purple/blue colors, bacillus stearothermophilus
oven: 160-170 C for 2-3 hrs
what is dry heat used for?
glassware, metal instruments, powers, oils
flame for loops, needles and lips of tubes
.2 um pore size used to trap bacteria, .01 um pore size used to trap viruses, vacuum used to speed up process
high efficiency particulate air filters, removes M.O.'s greater than .3 um from air, used in hospital rooms and laminar flow hoods in laboratories
When light hits it, the T's fuse together and create kink in DNA strand.
actions of chemical agents?
alter cell wall, altar plasma membrane, damage to proteins and nucleic acids