Chapter 5 Biology Test

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Carly1513
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Chapter 5 Biology Test
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2012-12-04 20:35:21
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Chapter 5 Biology Test
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  1. Chromatin
    Loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
  2. Chromatid
    One half of a duplicated chromosome
  3. Centromere
    Region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during mitosis and meiosis
  4. Telomere
    Repeating nucleotide at the ends of DNA molecules that don't form genes and prevent the loss of genes
  5. Prophase
    First phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope breaks down nucleolus disappears, centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
  6. Metaphase
    Second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
  7. Anaphase
    Third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
  8. Telophase
    • Last phase of mitosis
    • Is when a complete set of chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membranes start to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble
  9. Cell cycle
    Pattern of growth and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell
  10. Mitosis
    Process by which a nucleus divides its nucleus and its contents
  11. Cytokines
    Process by which the cell cytoplasm divides
  12. Chromosomes
    Long, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes, and regulatory information
  13. Histone
    Protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps
  14. G1 Phase
    Cells increase in size and organelles in number
  15. Synthesis
    Cell makes a copy of its nuclear DNA. In the end the cell contains 2 complete sets of DNA
  16. Gap 2
    Cells continue to carry out their normal functions an additional growth occurs
  17. Mitosis
    Cell nucleus and contents are divided. Cytokinesis - cell cytoplasm is divided
  18. How did G1 and G2 get their names?
    They are the periods in between so the gaps 1 and 2 - g1 and g2 for short
  19. Cells must pass through a critical checkpoint during which two phases of the cell cycle?
    Synthesis and Mitosis
  20. Where does DNA synthesis happen in eukaryotic cells?
    In the nucleus
  21. What two processes make up the M stage?
    Mitosis and cytokinesis
  22. Among different types of cells, which stage of the cell cycle varies most in length)
    The length of the G1 stage differs the most between cells
  23. What is G0?
    The stage in which cells are unlikely to divide
  24. What typically increases faster as a cell grows, surface area or volume?
    Surface area increases faster as the cell grows
  25. For cells to stay the same size from generation to generation, what two things must be coordinated?
    Growth and division
  26. What process divides the cell's cytoplasm?
    Cytokinesis
  27. What process divides the cell nucleus and its contents?
    Mitosis
  28. What is a chromosome?
    One long continuous thread of DNA consisting of genes and information.
  29. Why do chromosomes condense at the start of mitosis?
    So the cells can carry out all their necessary processes
  30. Why are chromosomes not condensed during all stages of the cell cycle?
    To make sure cells get the correct amount of copies and everything in proper numbering
  31. How does interphase prepare the cell to divide?
    It provides a critical time for organelle duplication and DNA reproduction
  32. Mitosis occurs in what types of cells?
    Mitosis occurs in all of the body cells except eggs and sperm
  33. Describe cytokinesis
    Divide cytoplasm between 2 daughter cells, each with genetically identical nucleus. The cells enter interphase and begin again.
  34. Describe Prophase
    DNA and proteins condense into tightly coiled chromosomes. The nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
  35. Describe metaphase
    Spindle fibers attach to each chromosome. They align the chromosome along the cell equator
  36. Describe anaphase
    Chromatids separate to opposite sides of the cell. Cytokinesis usually begins in late anaphase or early telophase
  37. Describe telophase
    Nuclear membranes start to form, chromosomes begin to uncoil and the spindle fibers fall apart
  38. How does cytokinesis differ between plant and animal cells?
    In animal cells the membrane pinches inwards but the plant cells cannot
  39. DNA wraps around organizing proteins called
    Histones
  40. ______ is the loose combination of DNA anD proteins that kind of look like spaghetti
    Chromatin
  41. Sister chromatids are held together at the _______, which looks pinched
    Centromere
  42. The ends of DNA molecules form structures called _____ that help prevent the loss of genes
    Telomeres
  43. Internal factors
    • Often triggered by external factors
    • Include kinases and cyclins
  44. External factors
    • Include cell to cell contact and other physical signals
    • Also include chemical signals such as growth factors
  45. Carcinogens
    Substances that produce or promote the development of cancer
  46. Examples of carcinogens
    • Tobacco smoke
    • Air pollutants
    • Radiation
    • Mutated genes carried viruses
  47. Cancer cells
    • Characterized by uncontrolled cell division
    • Continue to grow despite cell to cell contact or lack of growth factors
  48. Cancer cells may form
    Tumors
  49. Cancer cells may be killed by
    Apoptosis
  50. Tumors
    Disorganized clumps of cancer cells that do not carry out specialized functions needed by the body
  51. Apoptosis
    • Programmed cell death
    • Plays a roll in normal development and ridding body of unhealthy cells
  52. 2 types of rumors
    Malignant and Benign
  53. Malignant
    Cells break away and form new tumors
  54. Benign
    Cells remain clustered together
  55. Examples of apoptosis in healthy organisms
    Cells between fingers
  56. Growth factors stimulate _____
    Cells division
  57. What type of diseases i result if cell division isn't properly regulated?
    Cancer may result
  58. List three ways mutations can occur in genes involved in cell cycle regulation
    • Inherited
    • Exposed to radiation
    • Exposed to chemicals
  59. eBay does metastasize mean?
    When some of the cancer cells break away
  60. What is a substance known to produce of promote the he development of cancer?
    Carcinogens
  61. Chromosome structure
    • DNA double helix
    • DNA and histones
    • Chromatin
    • Supercoiled
  62. Cell size is limited
    • Cells have upper and lower size limits
    • If too small they couldn't contain all the necessary organelles
    • Surface area too small could result in a surface area too small for materials transport
  63. Section 5.1 Summary • The Cell Cycle
    Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and normal functions. The cell cycle has four main stages: G1, S, G2, and M. The length of the cell cycle can vary, resulting in different rates of cell division. This variability is based on the body's need for different cell types. Cells also divide because they need a sufficient surface area-to-volume ratio to move materials into and out of the cell.
  64. 5.2 Summary • Mitosis and Cytokinesis
    Cells divide during mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis divides the nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei in a four phase process: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. IN prophase, the duplicated chromosome condense tightly. Cytokinesis actually divides the cell cytoplasm.
  65. Section 5.3 Summary • Regulation of the Cell Cycle
    Cell cycle regulation is necessary for healthy growth. Cell growth and division are regulated by both external factors, such as hormones and growth factors, and internal factors, such as cyclins and kinases. Whne proper regulation of cell growht is disrupted, a cell may become cancerous. Cancer cells grow more rapidly than do normal cells and form clumps called tumors that may metasize to other regions of the body.
  66. 5.4 Summary • Asexual Reproduction
    Many organisms reproduce by cell division. Most prokaryotes reproduce through a process called binary fission, in which a cell divides two approximately equal parts. Some eukaryotes reproduce through mitosis.The offspring that result from asexual reproduction are genetically identical to the parent organism, except when mutations occur. Whether being identical is an advantage or a disadvantage depends on the environment.
  67. 5.5 Summary • Multicellular Life
    Cells work together to carry out complex functions. Within multicellular organisms, cells form tissues, tissues form organs, and organs form organ systems. The cells differentiate to perform specific functions. Much of this specialization is determined by a cell's location within the developing embryyo. Stem cells are a special type of cell that continue to divide and renew themselfs for long period times.

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