What are the various layers of the earth and each of their distinctive properties?
Inner Core: Solid because there is so much pressure it can't melt
Outter Core: Liquid molten
Lower Mantle: Solid rock
Athenosphere: Rubbery material
Upper Mantle: ?
*Upper mantle and the crust make up the lithosphere, the plate that moves.
What are two types of crust?
Oceanic: More dense and thinner
Continetnal: Less dense than Oceanic and thick
What is some of the evidence for Continental Drift?
Continental fit, rocks and mountains, glaciers, fossils
Why was the continental drift theory rejected?
Because there was no mechanism to show how the plates were moving.
What was the discovery of the magnetic patterns in the ocean floor?
The discovery of magnetic patterns in the ocean floor happened in the 1940s and it was used to see seafloor spreading.
How did mapping the ocean floor lead to the discovery of sea floor spreading and then ot the theory of plate tectonics?
The mapping of the ocean floor lead to: as you move farther away from the ridge, the rocks get older and the water gets deeper which is considered seafloor spreading. Seafloor spreading then lead to the development of plate tectonics because it showed how the lithosphere moves laterally and how continents are set within oceanic crust and ride along plates.
What is convection?
Convection is when things are heated they become less dense and rise. And when things are colder it is denser and goes down. This is what drives seafloor spreading and plate movement. Because the hot Core heats the mantle and causes the crust to move.
The theory of plate tectonics states:
The Earth's outermost layer is made into a dozen or more large and small plates that are moving relative to one another as they ride atop hotter, more mobile material which is called the athenosphere.
What are the two methods for dating rocks?
Relative dating: Relative age, the ordering of rocks in sequence by comparative ages
Radiometric dating: Absolute age, actual age.
What are the properties that we can use to identify materials?
Hardness, clevage/fracture, color, steak, crystal shape, specific gravity
What is the rock cycle?
The process of rocks continually changing from one type to another.
What are the three types of plate boundaries?
Convergent, divergent, transform
Define each type of plate boundary.
Convergent: Occur between two plates moving toward each other.
Divergent: occur between to plates moving away from each other.
Transform: occur between two plates that slide past each other horizontally.
What can form at convergent boundaries?
Volcanoes, earthquakes and mountains
What can form at divergent boundaries?
Long skinny volcano and earthquakes
What can form at transform boundaries?
What happens when Convergent Oceanic-Oceanic Boundaries?
The older, more dense plate goes under the younger, less dense plate and it forms volcanoes, earthquakes and mountains.
What happens when Convergent Contiental and Oceanic Boundaries meet?
The oceanic plate goes under the contintental plate and earthquakes, volcanoes and moutains form.
What happens when Convergent Continental and Continental Boundaries form?
Earthquakes and mountains.
What are three different types of rocks?
Igneous Rock: Formed from magma
Sedimentary Rock: Formed from particles or dissolved minerals from previously existing rocks that were deposited from air or water.
Metamorphic Rocks: Previously existing rocks that have been changed into a distinctly different rock by heat, pressure or hot solutions.
Why is it colder in Northern Kentucky than it is in July?
In NKY it is colder now than in July because we are futher from the sun rays (the Earth is tilted in the opposite direction) and therefore is colder.
What is equinox?
Equal hours of day and night to high latitudes.
What is solstice?
Times when the sun is at is maximum or minimum altitude in the sky. Summer and winter.
What is weather?
The state of the atmosphere.
What is climate?
General pattern of weather that occurs in a region over a period of years. (Long term)
MOHS Hardness scale?
The Guys Could Find Alot Of Quitters That Couldn't Dance.