Antimicrobrials: broad term for any natural or synthetic compound that kills microorganisms or suppresses their growth- includes antibiotics (produced by bacteria), ionophores (for ruminants class of antibiotics for animal), antiseptics, disinfectants
Antibiotics: Specifically a substace produced by a microorganism that kills or suppresses the growth of another microorganism (such as penecillin)- used generically for "pharmaceuticals used to kill microorganisms in host organism"
What are other pharmaceuticals (other than antimicrobrials) that are used in livestock? companion animals?
CA: cardiovascular drugs, respiratory drugs, GI drugs, cancer chemotherpay, CNS drugs (behaviour and seizures)
What are the role of acts is legislation regarding drugs?
gov writes act that = the law (they set out the framework and jurisdiction of the law)
each act has one or more associate regulations (working rules)
How does Health Canada regulate the sale of drugs in Canada? FOR veterinarian drugs these legislations are administered through?????
throught the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations, and the Controlled Drug Substance Act.
(wheras in human durgs these legislations are administered primarily through the therapeutic products directorate, TPD)
For veterinary drugs, including anitmicrobrials for food animals, these legislations are administered throught the Veterinary Drugs Directorate VDD
*note vet drugs are licenesed through Food CN not Ag CN to protect ppl from drugs in animals
the VDD is responsible for human food safety issues pertaining to vet drugs
What is all composed in the Federal legislation act for the Food and Drug Act?
Licensing, testing and safety of drugs
Lists permitted and banned substances
categeroes: non-prescription (OTC), prescription
(controlled and narcotics are under a seperate Act)
Requirements for labeling, sale and distribution
Penalties (up to 3 years jail term)
What is all composed in the federal Controlled Drugs and Substances Act?
narctoics such as morphine and other drugs (mostly used as strong painkillers, sedatives, and anesthetics)
some are permitted (with restrictions), others are banned completely
all penalties under the Criminal Code
(strong rules on how to dispense them)
What are biologicals?
vaccines, probiotics, colostrum
What is all compesed in the federal Health of Animals Act (and Regs)?
control and eradtication of disease
lists prohibited materials in feed
rules for import and export of animals and byproducts
regulates biologics (vaccines)
regulation for transportation
required identification of animals
lists reportable and notifiable disease
What is all compesed in the federal Meat inspection act?
slaughtering of animals, inspection*, packaging, labeling, processing, testing, export and import of meat (rules re drug residues)
What is all compesed in the federal Feeds Act?
safety of animals feeds, medicated feeds
what's permitted in animal feeds, what's not
What are all the different Federal Legislation acts?
Food and Drug Act
Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
Health of Animal Act (and regs)
Meat Inspection Act
Veterinary drugs are classified into groups based on a risk management approach. What are these groups?
1. Controlled drugs (used for specific therapy under control by the veterinarian. This group of drugs includes products such as stimulants, aenesthetics, and sedatives.
2. Schedule F Drugs
-part 1: need prescription
-part 2: No prescription required
3. Non-scheduled (vet drugs are those sold without a prescription, such as aspirin ie vitamins)
4. Medicated Feeds: The canadian compendium of medicated ingredients brochure (CMIB or MIB) lists medicated ingredients (including antimicrobials) that are approved by Health Canada for feed use and may be added by feed mills without prescription
Describe the two parts of F Drugs
Part 1 includes drugs intended for human or veterinary use that require presctiption through a pharmacist, practitionar (ie vet) or licensed manufacturer
Part 2 includes drus that may be sold without a prescription when intended for vet use or are so labelled. These drugs such as vitamins, cough syrup, and some antibiotics, afe often sold OTC. BUT when sold for human use, these drugs require a presctiption
Describe the schedule F Part 1 drugs
Available only on the order (prescription) and under guidence of a lienced veterinarian with a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship (VCPR)
may not be sold by non-professional staff on demand
must be used according to manufacturer's label, unless under guidance of vet within VCPR
are subject to withdrawal conditions
Describe the schedeule F part 2
OTC veterinary drugs (for animals NOT people)
do not require a prescription for use in animals (but prescription may be needed for human use)
available to producers on demand at outlets such as feed stores
must be used accordeing to manufacturer's label
are subject to same withdrawl conditions as prescription drugs
For drug classifiation what are the ID on a label for prescription, controlled drugs, and narcotics
Prescriptipn = Pr
Controlled drugs C in a circle
Narcotics N in a box
What are the Provincial Legislations acts and associated regulations?
Pharmacy and drug act
veterinary profession act
Production Animal Medicine Regulation
Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act
Agricultural Operation Practices Act
Animal Protection Act
Under Provincial legislation explain the Pharmacy and Drug Act
regulates pharmacist profession and the sale of drugs in Alberta
only pharmacists are normally allowed to sell/dispense drugs
exemptions for registerd vets, (and OTC sales through the Production Animal Medicine Regulation of Livestock Diseases Act)
Under Provincial legislation explain the Veterinary Profession Act
(allows despendse and presctiption of drugs by vets)
regulates the vet profession, confers self -governing status (as with other Profession Acts)
Defines qualifications and requirements for registration of vets, scope of practice (what is vet medicine), who can perform vet medicine, and gives authority to prescribe and dispense drugs for animals
Under Provincial legislation explain the Animal Health Act
control of communicable Aniaml Diseases
designates"reportable" and "notifiable" communicable diseases
permits quarantine, seizure or destruction of livestock with reportable disease
it has several regulations
What are the regulations under the Animal Health Act
reportable and notifiable Disease regulations
livestock disease control regulation
destruction and disposal of dead animal regulation
livestock market regulations
traceability livestock ID regulation
traceability premises ID regulation
******Prodcution Animal Medicine regulation (allows for companies to sell vet drugs that are OTC)
Under Provincial legislation explain the Prodcution Animal Medicine Regulation
permits sale of non-prescription products, such as certain antibiotics, anti-parastic drugs, wound treatments, vitamins, minerals, killed vaccines by licensed premises (including vet clinics)
licensing by AARD (a "PAM license")
Staff members certifieed by examination to be permitted to sell such OTC products
(so licensed facility, and staff certified)
What is the Licensed Livestock Medicine Outlet
Production animal medicine (PAM) license
Not only the outlet but staff bust be tained- PAM qualification certifacte
Thorough knowledge or regulations and their responsibility
PAM certificate holder must be on site at all times when drugs are being sold
Only the PAM certificate holder is permitted to explain withdrawal, toxicity and other warnings (ie help person read label)
Under Provincial legislation explain the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, Agricultural Operation Practices Act, Animal Protection act
Enviro Protection and enhancement act: pesticides
agri operational practices act; handling manure
Animal protection act: animal welfare, duties to care for animals, animals in distress