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Is a theraputic dose more toxic or deficient than a healthy dose?
Higher toxicity level
Who assesses the standards of animal research?
Canadian Council on animal care and use committee
Does Canada have a federal welfare act?
What are some (5) of the issues with respect to drugs?
- welfare of animals (too much or too little antibiotics)
- healthy pets and livestock (need to be treated when necessary)
- healthy food for humans to eat
- concern about drugs in the food (waste) or enviro
- *concern about bacteria developing resistance to antibiotics = loss of effective antibiotics - cost and risk**
- laws and regulations
Why should drugs use be studied in animal health?
- improving animal health and welfare by reducing disease, losses, and wastage
- improving food safety by reducing risk of drug residues and antimicrobrial resistant bacteria
- ensure drugs remain available and effective
- reduce the need and likelihood of additional gov regulations
- provide cost benefit through reduced treatment cost when drugs are used only when necessary and according to label directions or vet prescription
In what context is the use of drugs in animals appropriate?
- animal is recieving proper basic preventative care
- availability of competent (proper) diagnosis and treatment
- professionals involved have the "big picture" in mind (asks should these drugs be saved for non routine bug scenarios?)
- consideration of ALL risks, including human saftey, food safety, environment etc...
How is disease prevention done?
- herd health programs, biosecurity, basic preventative health care
- treatment and control of diseases including accurate diagnosis, timely application of appropriate therapy
- food safety and ensuring consumer confidence
- protection of environment- proper use and disposal of products and sharps
What are Herd Health Programs management systems based on?
- Periodic visits by a veterinarian
- Recording of Health and Production data
- is now becoming increasingly formalised and integrated with On-Farm Food Safety Assurance Programs
What happens during a periodic visit by a veterinarian (for a heard health program)
- monitor occurance od disease (clinical and PM exams)
- advise on preventative care- vaccines, parasite control (viral or bacterial disease may be worsened by parasite present)
- assess productivity changes or trends that may hint at disease occurence (open cows, mastisis, lameness) ie foot root
- offer advice on reproduction (preg checking, bull testing) animal enviro, housing, nutrition, genetics, and financial management (is a particular vaccine really necessary?)
- ongoing relationship to deal with diagnostic needs and emergency care (VCPR- vet client relationshio)
What record keeping data is kept for health and production rate?
- ID treated animals
- record treatment dates, drug, dose and outcome
What are Biosecurity vs Biocontainment?
- biosecurity: dont want to intro a disease. managment practices used to reduce the risk of introduction of infectious disease onto farms
- biocontainment: got a disease dont want it getting out. Part of the security plan. refers to measures taken to reduce movement of infectious dieases within of on the farm
- often incorperated into OFFSAP
How is treatment and control of disease ensured?
Proper treatment requires proper and accurate diagnosis first! As well as appropriate changes treatment and changes to management practices: HHPs in livestock, preventative health care (companion)
What are some examples of HACCP-based OFFSAPs in Canada?
- AB Beef on farm food safety
- Canadian quality milk
- canadian quality assurance (pork)
- safe, safer, safest (chicken farmers of canada)
- start clean- stay clean (canadian egg marketing agency)
What are teh 3 categories of hazards?
- Biological (pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites)
- Chemical (drug or pesticide residues)
- Physical (broken needles is meat, straw in milk)
What are some of the reasons for drug use in Livestock?
- Therapeutic (treat disease, pain etc)
- preventative (ie shots of vit E)
- growth promotion (antibiotics and hormones)
- Management, efficiency, misc (repro hormones, vitamins and minerals)
What is an issue with companion animal drug use?
Drugs are used as much as in human medicine
For companion animals drug use includes classes not used in livestock such as for the treatement of?????????
- cancers (ie chemo therap)
- immune diseases
- cardiac, kidney, liver disease, hormonal disease
- however preventative antibiotics not common
What are some of the differences between Livestock and Companion Animal drug use?
- L: economic value of animal
- CA: "members of the family"- priceless but on a budget
- L: Trade domestically and internationally
- CA: travel with owners sometimes long distances
- L: Consumed as food: have withdrawal and withholding times
- A: treated as individuals. Live with and share pathogens with family
- Horses: fall in between
What are some examples of categories of drugs?
- Biologicals (all those drugs like vaccines that have or have had a large component at some point)
- Antimicrobrials- parasticides, fungicides
- Tragnquilizers ad Anesthetics- loval anesthetic (lidocaine) available OTC
- vitamins, minerals (nutritional)
- Other pharmaceuticals
- Disinfectatnat (not really a drug)
What are Bilogicials?
- *essentially refers to vaccines
- -different types (modified live can cause reactions and have high risk, or dead)
- -also antibody preparations and probiotics
- -antibody/immunoglobulin products (ie colostrum replaceer)
- -Probiotics- lactobacillus, bifidobacterium etc..
What are antimicrobrials vs antibiotics ?
- Antimicrobrials: broad term for any natural or synthetic compound that kills microorganisms or suppresses their growth- includes antibiotics (produced by bacteria), ionophores (for ruminants class of antibiotics for animal), antiseptics, disinfectants
- Antibiotics: Specifically a substace produced by a microorganism that kills or suppresses the growth of another microorganism (such as penecillin)- used generically for "pharmaceuticals used to kill microorganisms in host organism"
What are other pharmaceuticals (other than antimicrobrials) that are used in livestock? companion animals?
- livestock: hormones
- CA: cardiovascular drugs, respiratory drugs, GI drugs, cancer chemotherpay, CNS drugs (behaviour and seizures)
What are the role of acts is legislation regarding drugs?
- gov writes act that = the law (they set out the framework and jurisdiction of the law)
- each act has one or more associate regulations (working rules)
How does Health Canada regulate the sale of drugs in Canada? FOR veterinarian drugs these legislations are administered through?????
- throught the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations, and the Controlled Drug Substance Act.
- (wheras in human durgs these legislations are administered primarily through the therapeutic products directorate, TPD)
- For veterinary drugs, including anitmicrobrials for food animals, these legislations are administered throught the Veterinary Drugs Directorate VDD
- *note vet drugs are licenesed through Food CN not Ag CN to protect ppl from drugs in animals
- the VDD is responsible for human food safety issues pertaining to vet drugs
What is all composed in the Federal legislation act for the Food and Drug Act?
- Licensing, testing and safety of drugs
- Lists permitted and banned substances
- categeroes: non-prescription (OTC), prescription
- (controlled and narcotics are under a seperate Act)
- Requirements for labeling, sale and distribution
- Penalties (up to 3 years jail term)
What is all composed in the federal Controlled Drugs and Substances Act?
- narctoics such as morphine and other drugs (mostly used as strong painkillers, sedatives, and anesthetics)
- some are permitted (with restrictions), others are banned completely
- all penalties under the Criminal Code
- (strong rules on how to dispense them)
What are biologicals?
vaccines, probiotics, colostrum
What is all compesed in the federal Health of Animals Act (and Regs)?
- control and eradtication of disease
- lists prohibited materials in feed
- rules for import and export of animals and byproducts
- regulates biologics (vaccines)
- regulation for transportation
- required identification of animals
- lists reportable and notifiable disease
What is all compesed in the federal Meat inspection act?
slaughtering of animals, inspection*, packaging, labeling, processing, testing, export and import of meat (rules re drug residues)
What is all compesed in the federal Feeds Act?
- safety of animals feeds, medicated feeds
- what's permitted in animal feeds, what's not
What are all the different Federal Legislation acts?
- Food and Drug Act
- Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
- Health of Animal Act (and regs)
- Meat Inspection Act
- Feeds Act
Veterinary drugs are classified into groups based on a risk management approach. What are these groups?
- 1. Controlled drugs (used for specific therapy under control by the veterinarian. This group of drugs includes products such as stimulants, aenesthetics, and sedatives.
- 2. Schedule F Drugs
- -part 1: need prescription
- -part 2: No prescription required
- 3. Non-scheduled (vet drugs are those sold without a prescription, such as aspirin ie vitamins)
- 4. Medicated Feeds: The canadian compendium of medicated ingredients brochure (CMIB or MIB) lists medicated ingredients (including antimicrobials) that are approved by Health Canada for feed use and may be added by feed mills without prescription
Describe the two parts of F Drugs
- Part 1 includes drugs intended for human or veterinary use that require presctiption through a pharmacist, practitionar (ie vet) or licensed manufacturer
- Part 2 includes drus that may be sold without a prescription when intended for vet use or are so labelled. These drugs such as vitamins, cough syrup, and some antibiotics, afe often sold OTC. BUT when sold for human use, these drugs require a presctiption
Describe the schedule F Part 1 drugs
- Available only on the order (prescription) and under guidence of a lienced veterinarian with a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship (VCPR)
- may not be sold by non-professional staff on demand
- must be used according to manufacturer's label, unless under guidance of vet within VCPR
- are subject to withdrawal conditions
Describe the schedeule F part 2
- OTC veterinary drugs (for animals NOT people)
- do not require a prescription for use in animals (but prescription may be needed for human use)
- available to producers on demand at outlets such as feed stores
- must be used accordeing to manufacturer's label
- are subject to same withdrawl conditions as prescription drugs
For drug classifiation what are the ID on a label for prescription, controlled drugs, and narcotics
- Prescriptipn = Pr
- Controlled drugs C in a circle
- Narcotics N in a box
What are the Provincial Legislations acts and associated regulations?
- Pharmacy and drug act
- veterinary profession act
- Animal Health
- Production Animal Medicine Regulation
- Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act
- Agricultural Operation Practices Act
- Animal Protection Act
Under Provincial legislation explain the Pharmacy and Drug Act
- regulates pharmacist profession and the sale of drugs in Alberta
- only pharmacists are normally allowed to sell/dispense drugs
- exemptions for registerd vets, (and OTC sales through the Production Animal Medicine Regulation of Livestock Diseases Act)
Under Provincial legislation explain the Veterinary Profession Act
- (allows despendse and presctiption of drugs by vets)
- regulates the vet profession, confers self -governing status (as with other Profession Acts)
- Defines qualifications and requirements for registration of vets, scope of practice (what is vet medicine), who can perform vet medicine, and gives authority to prescribe and dispense drugs for animals
Under Provincial legislation explain the Animal Health Act
- control of communicable Aniaml Diseases
- designates"reportable" and "notifiable" communicable diseases
- permits quarantine, seizure or destruction of livestock with reportable disease
- it has several regulations
What are the regulations under the Animal Health Act
- reportable and notifiable Disease regulations
- livestock disease control regulation
- destruction and disposal of dead animal regulation
- livestock market regulations
- traceability livestock ID regulation
- traceability premises ID regulation
- ******Prodcution Animal Medicine regulation (allows for companies to sell vet drugs that are OTC)
Under Provincial legislation explain the Prodcution Animal Medicine Regulation
- permits sale of non-prescription products, such as certain antibiotics, anti-parastic drugs, wound treatments, vitamins, minerals, killed vaccines by licensed premises (including vet clinics)
- licensing by AARD (a "PAM license")
- Staff members certifieed by examination to be permitted to sell such OTC products
- (so licensed facility, and staff certified)
What is the Licensed Livestock Medicine Outlet
- Production animal medicine (PAM) license
- Not only the outlet but staff bust be tained- PAM qualification certifacte
- Thorough knowledge or regulations and their responsibility
- PAM certificate holder must be on site at all times when drugs are being sold
- Only the PAM certificate holder is permitted to explain withdrawal, toxicity and other warnings (ie help person read label)
Under Provincial legislation explain the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, Agricultural Operation Practices Act, Animal Protection act
- Enviro Protection and enhancement act: pesticides
- agri operational practices act; handling manure
- Animal protection act: animal welfare, duties to care for animals, animals in distress