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  1. Why study motivation?
    • By understanding why people behave the way they do Managers can exercise leadership to achieve positive results
    • Which can foster “organizational citizenship” also known as
    • employee engagement.
  2. What motivates us?
    • –Self-direction
    • –Mastery
    • Purpose
  3. Attitude
    a settled way of thinking or feeling
  4. Cognitive componentn of attitude
    Includes the beliefs, opinions, and information the person has about the object of the attitude (knowing)
  5. Affective component of attitude
    The person’s emotions or feelings about the object of the attitude (feeling)
  6. Behavioral component of attitude
    of an attitude is the person’s intention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certain way (doing)
  7. What are the three components of attitude?
    Cognitive thoughts, feelings, behavior.
  8. Components of an Attitude
    • As a general rule, changing just
    • one component of attitude - cognition, affect, or behavior   can contribute to an an overall change in attitude.
  9. Two attitudes that may relate to
    performance are:
    • Job satisfaction
    • Organizational   commitment
  10. What are five components of job satisfaction?
    • 1.“My work matches my needs and interests”
    • 2.“My working conditions are satisfactory”
    • 3.“My pay and benefits are satisfactory”
    • 4.“I like the people I work with”
    • 5.“I like my boss” (a critical factor)
  11. Cognitive dissonance
    When a person’s attitudes conflict with one another or are not reflected in behavior(ex. committment with job conflicts with commitment to family.
  12. Motivation
    • The result of a complex set of psychological influences and external forces or conditions that are specific to
    • an individual, and that cause a person to behave in a certain way, with a certain level of effort and degree of persistence.
  13. Flow
    A state of intense concentration and complete engagement in a task, along with full use of one’s talents to accomplish the task.
  14. Self awareness
    Enables us to make good choices and to discover ways to infuse work with meaning, passion, fun, and great outcomes.
  15. How to ensure that people are committed, passionate, and motivated?
    • 1. Self awareness–> leadership shadow.
    • 2. Hope –> An optimistic image of a future state that is feasible and that a person feels he or she can attain.
    • 3. Resonant environment–> a work environment characterized by excitement, energy, optimism, efficacy, and hope.
  16. Intrinsic Motivation
    An internal sense of satisfaction derived from the work itself and/or the desire to engage in activities even in the absence of external rewards in order to feel a sense of satisfaction, touse or improve one’s abilities, or to learn
  17. Extrinsic motivation
    Motivation that is the result of forces or attractions outside of the self such as material rewards, social status, or even avoiding unpleasant consequences.
  18. Hierarchy of Needs
    A model stating that people are motivated to satisfy first physiological, then safety and security, then affiliation and belonging, then esteem, and finally self-actualization needs in that order.
  19. What are the 5 parts of maslow's hiearchy in order from the bottom to the top.
    physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self actualization needs.
  20. The Two-Factor Theory
    Two distinct sets of factors, called motivators & hygiene factors, affect satisfaction, motivation, or dissatisfaction
  21. Motivators
    Factors that positively impact motivation, such as the needs for recognition, responsibility, achievement, and opportunities for growth and development.
  22. Hygiene factors
    Either cause or eliminate job dissatisfaction, but do not result in motivation. Both physical and psychological aspects of a job that can lead to dissatisfaction,including salary, working conditions, supervision, relationships with coworkers, and level of job security.
  23. Three-Needs Theory
    People are motivated by needs for achievement, affiliation, and power
  24. Need for achievement
    The desire to engage in challenging and complex activities, to meet and exceed personal goals, and to succeed.
  25. Need for affiliation 
    • A desire for warm, fulfilling, and close
    • personal relationships.
  26. Need for power
    The desire to have influence, control, and responsibility, either directly or through social status.
  27. Equity Theory
    The level of motivation is a result of comparing personal inputs and outcomes, and also of comparing one’s efforts and rewards with others’ inputs and outputs.
  28. Referent
    A referent is an individual or group that is assessed for comparison purposes.
  29. Operant Conditioning Theory
    Learning and behavior change occur when behavior is reinforced, and when that behavior is not reinforced or is punished, it will eventually cease
  30. Positive reinforcement
    Addition of a positive consequence following a desired behavior.
  31. Negative reinforcement
    Removal of a negative consequence following a desired behavior.
  32. Extinction
    Withholding a consequence following behavior
  33. Punishment
    • Addition of a negative consequence
    • following an undesired behavior.
  34. Positive reinforcement
    In the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence
  35. Avoidance learning
    Is the removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior
  36. Punishment
    Is the imposition of unpleasant outcomes on an employee
  37. Extinction
    is the withdrawal of a positive reward; behavior is no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the future
  38. What are two ways that hr play's a role in motivation?
    • 1.Compensation and Reward Programs
    • 2.WorkDesign
  39. Individual compensation
    A plan in which pay is determined by considering an individual’s performance.
  40. Group compensation
    Compensation schemes that base an individual’s compensation on the performance of a group or groups, and/or the organization as a whole
  41. Merit-based compensation
    A plan in which compensation is determined by the level of performance of an individual or group.
  42. Compensation packages
    • A plan in which wages, bonuses, and
    • “fringe” benefits (such as health insurance, retirement plans, vacation, tuition reimbursement, and stock options) are all monetized.
  43. Compensation schedules
     A plan in which payment structures and terms of payment (including pay rates and bonuses) are dispersed to employees and adjusted.
  44. Job enrichment
    Building intrinsic motivators, such as opportunities for learning, more control over how tasks are accomplished, and leadership opportunities, into the structure of a job.
  45. Job enlargement
    Combining several simple jobs into one larger job.
  46. Job rotation
    Moving employees from one job or one job site to another to increase satisfaction and productivity
  47. Empathy
    Understanding others’ feelings and affective states, and even taking on the feelings of others
  48. Authority
    • Formal and legitimate right of a
    • manager to:
    • 1.Make decisions
    • 2.Issue instructions (orders)
    • 3.Allocate resources to help achieve goals
  49. Delegation
    The process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility
  50. When thinking about delegating a task you should always consider:
    you should always consider the consequences, complexity, competence of the employee, and visibility of the project
  51. Line authority
    Means that people in management positions have formal authority to direct and control immediate subordinates
  52. Staff authority
    includes the right to advise, recommend, and counsel in the staff specialist’s area of expertise (e.g.,legal, human resources, etc.)
  53. Centralization
    decision authority is located near the top of the organization
  54. Decentralization
    authority is pushed downward to lower organizational levels
  55. Ethnocentrism
    The belief that one’s own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures.
  56. Ethnorelativism
    The belief that groups and subcultures are inherently equal.
  57. Monoculture
    A culture that accepts only one way of doing things and one set of values and beliefs.
  58. Pluralism
    Means that an organization accommodates several subcultures
  59. Glass Ceiling
    Invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions
  60. Opt-Out Trend
    Women are leaving corporate structures for other options - staying home, starting a business, etc
  61. Female Advantage
    More collaborative, less hierarchical, more relationship-oriented
  62. Emotional Intimacy
  63. Gallup and other research studies indicate that friendships in the workplace are important to employee satisfaction and engagement
  64. Sexual Harassment
    Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
  65. Quid Pro Quo
    “This for that” - Raise, promotion, etc. in return for sexual favors
  66. Hostile Work Environment
    Photos,jokes, gestures, etc., that make someone uncomfortable
  67. What is a Team?
    A unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal
  68. What are the three types of formal teams?
    Vertical,horizontal and special purpose.
  69. vertical team
    Composed of manager and subordinates in a formal chain of command
  70. Horizontal team
    • -Drawn from several departments
    • -Given a specific task
  71. Special Purpose (or Project) team
    brought together for a project, and then disband.
  72. What are the two types of workplace teams?
    virtual, and global workplace teams
  73. Virtual workplace team
    geographically bor organizationally dispersed members who are linked primarily through advancedtechnology
  74. Global workplace teams
    cross-border teams with people of different nationalities whose activities span multiple countries
  75. What are the three characteristics of a team?
    Size, diversity, and member roles
  76. What is the ideal team size?
    7, but anywhere from 5-12 members is typically associated with good team performance.
  77. Task specialist role
    Spend time and energy helping the team reach its goal
  78. Socio-emotional role
    support team members’ emotional needs
  79. what are the five stages of team development?
    forming,storming, norming, performing, adjourning
  80. Groupthink
    • Avoid conflict
    • - Don’t express opinions or ideas
    • -results in  Poor decisions
  81. what does strong conflict in a team result in?
    • Poor morale
    • -Hurt feelings
    • - Decreased employee commitment
    • - Decreased team performance
  82. Organizational Control
    Establishing standards,measurements, and metrics to monitor and control the organization, including the systems necessary to collect that information
  83. What are some organizational controls?
    Feedback systems, productivity metrics, total wuality management, budgets, audit systems, balanced scorecards.
  84. What are the 3 types of feedback systems?
    • 1Feed forward - anticipates problems
    • 2Concurrent
    • - solves problems as they happen
    • 3Feedback
    • - solves problems after they occur
  85. TQM - Total Quality Management
    • lThe drive for quality in all aspects of an
    • organization’s operations
  86. What are some tqm techniques?
    quality circles, benchmarking, six sigma principles, continuous improvement.
  87. Budgetary Control
    The process of setting targets for an organization’s expenditures, monitoring results and comparing them to the budget, and making changes as needed.
  88. Open-Book
    •  Sharing of financial information with employees
    • Goal:
    • getting every employee thinking and acting like a business owner rather than a hired hand
  89. The Balanced Scorecard
    Balances traditional financial measures with measures of customer service, internal business processes and capacity for learning and growth
Card Set:
2012-12-05 04:05:34
human resource management

hrm exam 4
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