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What theory is a way of thinking about the human experience/existence?
What theory is somewhat abstract and philosophical?
What theory was influenced by philosophers like Kierkegaard, Sartre, and Nietzsche?
Is the client or the therapist the expert in existential therapy?
The client is the expert on his or her own experience.
What therapy is grounded in direct experience?
Is diagnosis a key part of existential therapy?
No, existential therapists tend to shy away from diagnosis.
What is the core of Existential therapy?
The ultimate concerns are the coe of existential therapy.
What are the four ultimate concerns according to Existential therapy?
In what therapy do the therapist and the client work collaboratively to examine the human conundrum?
According to existential theory, what two ways do techniques and manualized treatments dehumanize people?
Keeps therapist from genuinely engaging with client
Keeps client from genuinely engaging in their search for meaning.
What are four examples of questions that people might ask themselves regarding their existence?
- Who am I?
- Is life worth living?
- Does life have meaning?
- How can I realize my humanity?
What are six themes discussed in Existential therapy sessions?
- Purpose in life
- Personal Meaning
In Existential therapy are client viewed as pathological?
Name two specific types of clients that Existential therapy can be good to use with.
- Trauma victims
- End of life patients
What ultimate concern says that we are the authors of our own lives?
What is the general formula for the ultimate concern of Freedom?
Freedom = responsibility = burden.
How do Existential therapists help clients discontinue avoiding freedom?
Help the client address feelings about responsibility and burden and help them accept the responsibility that choices and actions will dictate who we become.
the ultimate concern of isoloation is the primary source of what symptom?
What are the three types of isolation?
What is intrapersonal isolation?
Our experiences are ours alone
What is interpersonal isolation?
Being cut off from others
What is existential isolation?
ultimately we are alone in the universe
Give an example of existential isolation.
We realize that no one else int he world is thinking of us, so we fun to FB and make a status update. We become relieved when other "like" or comment on it.
According to Existential therapy, what helps us avoid feeling of despair around an unobserved life?
More people than we realize seek treatment for what?
searching for purpose in their life.
Where does meaning emerge from?
engaging in fulfilling endeavors.
Why is death an ultimate concern?
we are all aware that our demise is inevitable and this is painful and difficult to accept.
According to Existential theroy, what is personality informed by?
How a person deals with dilemmas of freedom and other ultimate concerns.
What is willingness?
action component of freedom and moving to decisions.
What is a wish?
decision or choice
What is the existential system?
Awareness of ultimate concerns -> anxiety -> defense mechanism
What is the ultimate existential concern?
According to the Existential theory of personality what plays an important role in internal experience?
According to Existential therpay of personality what do all human being require?
What is the blueprint for life?
Hierarchy of values
Are there specific techniques associated with Existential therapy?
No, it can exist in many types of treatment.
How are therapists trained in Existential therapy?
- personal therapy
- philosophical readings
Is there a timeframe for Existential therapy?
What is the goal of Existential therapy?
To understand yourself
Are there typically assessments or measurements associated with Existential therapy?
Why is the therapeutic alliance crucial in Existential therapy?
- Tasks are demanding and difficult
- Client needs to feel comfortable with the therapist so that they can rely on her when things get scary.
How often is homeowork assigned in Existential therapy?
Rarely; may be readings or journaling.
What orientation is often more philosophical and theoretical than others?
Why might the therapist disclose more often in Existential than other therapies?
The therapist is viewed as someone important in the client's life.
What is the fundamental task in Existential therapy?
exploration of self-world construct so individual can feel more satisfied with their effectiveness in life
Who is Existential therapy appropriate for?
- Higher functioning
- Aware and reflective
- End of life
- Substance abuse
Why is it difficult to validate Existential therapy through research?
operationalization goes against everything existential.
What three things must be present in Gestalt therapy?
- Field theory
What is Phenomenology?
Therapist focuses on what they observe and describe their observations.
What is often the focus of phenomenology?
The body and the senses
What is meant by dialogue?
- Here and now
- See and accept clients
- I-Thou relations
- therapist and client are on the same plane
What is the figure formation destruction cycle?
What we go through daily to get needs met
sensation, awareness, mobilization of energy, action, contact, resolution, withdrawal of attention.
What are the 7 parts of figure formation destruction cycle?
- Mobilization of energy
- Withdrawal of attention
What is the creative adjustment?
The ways that people learn to get their needs met.
What is organismic self-regulation?
What can happen to creative adjustments over time?
They may become rigid and applied in environments where they are no longer needed or helpful.
What are the 5 contact boundary phenomena?
What is introjection?
swallowing whole messages from the environment without assimilating.
Similar to a cognitive distortion
What is projection?
Seeing in others what is present in the self.
What is retroflection
Impulses are turned inward rather than expressed and contact is resisted.
What is deflection?
sidestepping or turning away from direct contact.
making a joke to lessen the impact of a message.
What is confluence?
merging a contact boundary that leads to lack of differentiation from another.
i.e. oh you like that, I like that too.
What is Gestalt therapy focused on?
Awareness instead of change.
What is the goal of every interventin in Gestalt?
According to Gestalt therapy, is there such a thing as resistance?
No, just more data about the client. approached with curiosity and openness
What is the basic way of being with a client in Gestalt therapy?
What things might a Gestalt therapist attend to?
- tone of voice
What theory utilizes experiments in therapy?
What is the purpose of experiments in Gestalt?
What are three types of experiments?
- Directed behavior
What orientation is time limited and symptom focused?
What was IPT originally developed for?
Treating depression in adults
What is the focus of IPT?
Here and now
What are the 4 attachment styles in IPT?
What attachment style protects against psychological distress?
Describe preoccupied attachment style
hyper-vigilant about their relationship. Particularly about negative things in their relationship
Describe fearful attachment
- they latch on.
- similar to insecure attachment
Describe dismissing attachment
- People who have a difficult time building trust and being authentic in relationships. This person has trouble believing that others will be there for them.
What three things do we tend to see in dismissing, preoccupied, or fearful attachment?
- lower self-esteem
- poor affect regulation
- problems with relationships
What will help resolve interpersonal problems?
building interpersonal effectiveness skills
What is the first step in recovery in IPT?
identify correlation between onset of symptoms and interpersonal problems.
What are the 3 phases of IPT?
What are the 3 components of the theory of psychopathology in IPT?
- Symptom formation
- Social functioning
- Personality factors
What are the 4 main interpersonal problem areas identified in IPT?
- Interpersonal disputes
- Roles Transition
- Interpersonal deficits
What theory follow the medical model?
What theory assesses symptoms throughout?
What are the 4 strategies in IPT?
- Demystify patients symptoms
- Do not plame patient
- Separate diagnosis from patient's personality
- Give patient permission to implement new interpersonal strategies.
What are the differences between IPT and psychodynamic?
- IPT ignores unconscious conflict
- IPT is focused on present
What are 5 IPT techniques?
- Clarification of mood and linking it to interpersonal events
- Communication analysis
- Decision making
- Interpersonal skill building
What is communication analysis?
Helping the client realize the things you say, the way you say it, and the body language all come together and effect how the message is received.
Recognizing tha the intent and impact may be different.
What is the goal of IPT?
improve symptoms and interpersonal functioning by improving the way individuals relate to others.
IPT focuses on the client's expectations of what?
relationships with other people.
What are two goals of IPT therapy?
- Reduce social isolation
- Reduce helplessness and hopelessness by helping client generate other options and enabling them to reach out interpersonally.
What is one challenge of IPT?
Staying focused on main issues
Describe the therapeutic relationshiop in IPT.
active, directive, and prescriptive, but you want the client to feel empowered as well to help generalize to the rest of their life as well.
What needs to be accomplished in the Initial Phase of IPT?
- Educate client about disorder
- Instill Hope
- Assign sick role
- Identify 1-2 focus areas
What happens in the middle phase of IPT?
Clarify how client affects and is affected by interpersonal environment
What happens in the termination phase of IPT?
- address client feelings about termination
- Increase clients competence around maintaining gains
- Review skills learned
- Relapse prevention
What are the 3 foundations of ACT?
- Relational Frame Theory
- Functional Contextualism
- Radical Behaviorism
What is Relational Frame Theory?
Relationships are created between words, feelings, and events and result in internal experiences eliciting the same reaction as the event itself.
What is functional contextualism?
takes context into consideration when considering function
What is radical behaviorism
everything a human does is behavior.
What are the two tennets of ACT?
- taking values guided action
- taking mindful action
What are the 6 core pathological processes
- Experiential avoidance
- Cognitive Fusion
- Unworkable Action
- Lack of clarity of values
- weak self knowledge
- attachment to conceptualized self
What are the 6 core therapeutic processes
- Self as Context
- Committed Action
- Contact with the present moment
What is self as context?
Step back and notice what you are experiencing
What is defusion?
helping people distance themselves from their thoughts
What orientation was originally developed for BPD?
What is the most important overall goal of DBT?
creating a life worth living
What is DBT useful for?
- Eating disorders
- Substance Abuse
- Recurrent depression
What are the two causes of BPD?
- Emotional vulnerability
- Invalidating environment
What are three indicators of emotional vulnerability?
- Highly sensitive to emotional stimuli
- Respond with intense emotions
- Difficulty returning to baseline or self-soothing
Is an invalidating environment always abusive?
What is an invalidating environment
environment that punishes, negates, or responds inappropriately to the private experiences of an individual.
What are 3 therapy modalities used in DBT?
- individual therapy
- skills groups
- phone coaching
What are 3 characteristics of DBT?
- Support oriented
- Cognitive based
What does a BPD client need from the therapist?
What is really important in the therapeutic relationship in DBT?
How is trust established in DBT?
establish boundaries and structure then stick to that.
words and actions must match.
What three things does the theory of DBT combine?
- Zen Buddhism
What are dialectics?
pholosophical view that there is never one ultimate truth.
what are the 3 assumptions about the nature of reality in Dialectics?
- Everything is connected
- Change is constant and inevitable
- Opposites can be integrated to for a closer approximation to the truth
What are the treatment goals of DBT?
- Emotional regulation
- Eliminate suicidal gestures
- develop self identity
- build interpersonal relationships
- decrease impulsive behaviors
What are the 4 skills taught in DBT?
- Emotion Regulation
- Distress Tolerance
- Interpersonal Effectiveness
What is mindfulness?
paying attention in the moment, non-judgmentally, to live life in a deliberate manner
What is emotion regulation
learn the function of emotions and improve the ability to describe, change and cope with emotions
What is distress tolerance
teaching skills to deal with crises in an effective way
How many stages are in DBT?
What are the 5 stages of DBT?
- stage 2
- stage 3
- stage 4
what occurs in pretreatment in DBT?
- prepare client for therapy
- provide psychoeducation and structure
- commitment to not engage in suicide or self harm for a specific period of time.
How long might stage one in DBT take?
a year or more
What stage is the bulk of work done in DBT?
What occurs in stage 1 of DBT?
- stabilize the client
- begin developing a life worth living
- create a hierarchy of behaviors to target
- build skills
What occurs in stage 2 of DBT?
move from being emotionally shut down to experiencing emotions
what occurs in stage 3 of DBT?
- begin building ordinary life
- balance happiness and unhappiness
- learn to validate self
- develop sense of self
When might the intensity of therapy decrease in DBT?
What occurs in stage 4 of DBT?
- resolve sence of incompleteness
- sustained contentment
- higher level issues geared towards personal growth
What are the 3 what skills of mindfulness?
What are the 3 how skills of mindfulness?
- One mindfully
what does dearman stand for in interpersonal effectiveness?
- appear confident
what does give stand for in relationship effectiveness?
- easy mannger