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Facts about 16th/17th century Netherlands
- The Netherlands emerged as a nation after revolting against Spain in 1572.
- The Calvinist Reformed Church was the official church of the nation, but it was not an established church. The country also became a haven for Jews.
- The Netherlands was formally a republic.
- The central government was embodied in the States General that met in the Hague.
Foundations of Dutch economic prosperity
- High Urban Consolidation
- Transformed Agriculture
- Extensive trade and finance
- Overseas Commercial Empire
William III of Orange
- Grandson of William the Silent
- Hereditary Chief Executive, or stadtholder, of Holland.
- He answered the invitation of Protestant English aristocrats in 1688 to assume, along with his wife Mary, the English throne.
- Dutch permited him to assume dominant leadership when confronted with major military challenges.
Two most important models of European political organization
- Parliamentary Monarchy (England)
- Political Absolutism (France)
Characteristics of Absolute Rule
Only monarchies that succeeded in building a secure financial base that was not deeply dependent on the support of noble estates, diets, or assembliew achieved absolute rule.
Characteristics of and facts about James I, his rule and relationship with Parliament
- A strong believer in the divine right of kings, he expected to rule with a minimum of constitution beyond his own royal court.
- Parliament met only when he summoned it, which James hoped to do rarely.
- He developed other sources of income, largely by levying new custom duties known as impositions.
Reasons for suspicion of James I foreign policy
- He concluded a much-needed peace with Spain, England's longtime adversary.
- His unsuccessful attempt to relax penal laws agains Catholics further increased English troops to the aid of German Protestants at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War.
- His son Charles marriage to a Catholic princess increased religious concern.
Charles I's extra-parliamentary measures
- Levying new tariffs and duties
- Attempting to collect discontinued taxes
- Subjecting English property owners to a so-called forced loan and then imprisoning those who refused to pay.
- As well as quartering troops in private homes.
The Petition of Right
This document required that henceforth there should be no forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament, that no freeman should be imprisoned without due cause, and that troops should not be billeted in private homes.
Consequences of the religious policies of Charles I
- Charles hoped to impose religious conformity at least within England and Scotland.
- Against the opposition of both the English Puritans and the Presbyterian Scots, tried to impose on Scotlan the English episcopal system and a prayer book almost identical to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.
- Scots rebelled, and Charles, with insufficient resources for war, was forced in 1640 to call Parliament.
Facts about "Long Parliament"
- Parliament abolished the courts that had enforced royal policy and prohibited the levying of new taxes without its consent.
- Parliament resolved that no more than three years should elapse between its meetings
- The king could not dissolve it without its own consent.
Facts about the English Civil War
- King's supporters known as the Cavaliers
- Parliamentary known as Roundheads
- Parliament was led by Oliver Cromwell
- Parliament came away with the victory
England under Oliver Cromwell
- From 1649 to 1660, England became officially a Puritan republic, although Cromwell dominated it.
- As a national leader he proved to be no politician.
- Cromwell's military dictatorship, however, proved no more effective than Charles's rule and became just as harsh and hated.
State of England after Cromwell and what they wanted to restore
England returned to the status quo of 1642, with a hereditary monarch, a Parliament of Lords and Commons that met only when the king summoned it, and the Anglican Church, with its bishops and prayer book, supreme in religion.
Facts about The Treaty of Dover
- In 1670, England and France formally allied against the Dutch, their chief commercial competitor.
- In a secret portion of this treaty, Charles pledged to announce his conversion th Catholicism as soon as conditions in England permitted this to happen.
The Test Act
- Required all civil and military officials of the crown to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation- which no loyal Roman Catholic could honesty do.
- Parliament had aimed the Test Act largely at the king's brother, James, duke of York, heir to the throne and a recent, devout convert to Catholocism.
The Popish Plot
- In 1678, Titus Oates swore beore a magistrate that Charles's Catholic wife, through her physician, was plotting with Jesuits and Irishmen to kill the king so James could assume the throne.
- Parliament believed Oates.
- In the ensuing hysteria, known as this, several innocent people were tried and executed.
- They made an unsuccessful effort to exclude James from succession to the throne.
Anti-Protestant actions of James II
- When he became king he immediately demanded the repeal of the Test Act.
- When Parliament balked, he dissolved it and proceeded to appoint Catholics to high positions in both his court and the army.
- In 1687, he issued another Declaration of Indulgence suspending all religious rests and permitting free worship.
- Each of these actions represented a direct royal attack on the local authority of nobles, landowners, the church, and other corporate bodies whose members believed they possessed particular legal privileges.
Facts about the Glorious Revolution
- The English had hoped that James would be succeeded by Mary, hi Protestant eldest daughter.
- James II's wife ended up giving birth to a male heir to the throne, and he would be Catholic.
- The Parliament invited William to England to preserve its "traditional liberties"
- William of Orange arrived with his army in November 1688 and was received with considerable popular support.
- James fled to France, and Parliament, in 1689, proclaimed William III and Mary II the new monarchs.
The Act of Settlement of 1701
Provided for the English crown to go to the Protestant House of Hanover in Germany if Queen Anne, the second daughter of James II and the heir to the childless William III, died without issue.
The Act of Union in 1707
Thus, at Anne's death in 1714, the Elector of Hanover became King George I of Great Britain since England and Scotland had been combined in an Act of Union in 1707.
Facts about Robert Walpole
- Walpole's ascendancy from 1721 to 1742 was based on royal support, his ability to handle the House of Commons, and his control of government patronage.
- Walpole maintained peace abroad and promoted the status quo at home.
- Britain's foreign trade spread from New England to India.
- Walpole's enemies could and did openly oppose his policies, which would not have been possible on the Continent.
Facts about Cardinal Armand Richelieu
- He was under Louis XIII
- Both him and Mazarin attempted to impose direct royal administration on France.
- He had also circumscribed many of the political privileges Henry IV had extended to French Protestants in the Edict of Nantes.
- The centralizing powers of him and Mazarin provoked a series of widespread rebellions among French nobes between 1649 and 1652 called the Fronde.
Louis XIV's relationship with French nobility
- His genius was to make the monarchy the most important and powerful political institution in France while also assuring the nobles and other wealthy groups of their social standing and influence on the local level.
- Rather than destroying existing local social and political institutions, Louis largely worked through them.
- The crown, for example, usually conferred informally with regional judicial bodies, called parlements.
- All of the nobility understood that Louis would not threaten their local social standing.
Facts about Louis XIV
- "Sun King"
- Many nobles moved into Versailles but were required royal patronage to remain in residence.
- "I am the state"
- Divine right of kings
Religious Policies of Louis XIV
Like Richelieu befor him, Louis believed that political unity and stability required religious conformity. To that end he carried out repressive actions against both Roman Catholics and Protestants.
Characteristics of Jansenists
A Roman Catholic religious movement known as Jansenism arose in the 1630s in opposition to the theology and the political influence of the Jesuits.
Results of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes
- In 1685
- Relations between the Catholic majority and the Protestant minority had remained hostile.
- Protestant churches and schools were closed, Protestant minister exiled, nonconverting laity were condemned to be galley slaves, and Protestant children were baptized by Catholic priests.
- As a result of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and the ongoing persecution of Jansenists, France became a symbol of religious repression in contrast to England's reputation for moderate religious toleration.
Finance minister of Louis XIV
Wars fought during the reign of Louis XIV
- War of Devolution
- French war against the Netherlands
- War of the League of Augsburg (Nine Years' War)
- War of the Spanish Succession
Facts about the War of Spanish Succession
- France, for the first time is Louis's reign went to war with inadequate inances, a poorly equipped army, and mediocre generals.
- The English, in contrast, had advanced weaponry and superior tactics
- After 1709 the war became a bloody stalemate.
- France finally made peace with England at Utrecht in July 1713, and with Holland an the emperor at Rastatt in March 1714.
- Louis also recognized the right of the house of Hanover to the English throne.
France after the reign of Louis XIV
- The duke of Orleans became regent and remained so until his death in 1720.
- The regency, marked by financial and moral scandals, further undermined the faltering prestige of the monarchy.
Economic beliefs of John Law
Law believed an increase in the paper-money supply would stimulate France's economic recovery.
Characteristics and facts about 17th century Central and Eastern Europe
- Central and eastern europe were economically much less advanced than western Europe.
- There were fewer cities and many more large estates worked by serfs.
- They did not engage in extensive overseas trade.
Dynasties of Central and Eastern Europe
- Prssia under the Hohenzollerns
- Russia under the Romanov
- Habsburg empire
Political/ Social characteristics of 17th & 18th century Poland
- The Polish monarcy was elective, but the deep distrust and divisions among the nobility usually prevented their electing a king from among themselves.
- The Polish nobles did have a central legislative body called the Sejm, or diet.
- The diet, hoever, had a practice known as the liberum veto, whereby the staunch opposition of any single memeber, who might have been bribed by a foreign power, could require the body to disband. Such opposition, termed "exploding the diet"
The Pragmatic Sanction
This instument provided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Habsburg dynasty through Charles VI's daughter Maria Teresa.
- Known as the Great Elector
- He established himself and his successors as the central uniting power by breaking the local noble estates, organizing a royal bureaucracy, and building a strong army.
- Son of the Great Elector
- He built palaces, founded Halle University, patronized the arts, and lived luxuriously.
- In the War of the Spanish Succession, he put his army at the disposal of the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor leopold I.
- In exchange, the emperor permitted Frederick to assume the title of "King in Prussia"
Frederick William I
- Both the most eccentric monarch to rule the Hohenzollern domains and one of the most effective.
- He built the best army in Europe.
Frederick the Great
- (r. 1740-1786)
- Almost immediately on coming to the throne, he upset teh Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Silesia.
Aftermath of the reign of Ivan IV in Russia
- A period known as the "Time of Troubles" followed upon his death.
- In 1613, an assembly elected Michael Romanov.
- The country remained, however, weak and impoverished. After years of turmoil, the boyars, the old nobility, still largely controlled the bureaucracy. Furthermore, the government and the tsars faced the danger of mutiny from the streltsy, or guards of the Moscow garrison.
Power of Boyars during reign of Peter the Great
- Peter also made a sustained attack on the boyars and their attachment to traditional Russian culture.
- After his European journey, he personally shaved the long beards of the court boyars and seared off the customary long hand covering seeves of their shirts and coats, which haad made them the butt of jokes among other European courts.
Facts about the Great Northern War
- The Peace of Nystad confirmed the Russian conquest of Estonia, Livonia, and part of Finland.
Significance of St. Petersburg
It symbolized a new Western orientation of Russia and Peter's determination to hold his position on the Baltic coast.
Reforms of Peter the Great and their purpose
Peter undertook radical administrative reforms designed to bring the nobility and the Russian Orthodox church more closely under the authority of persons loyal to the tsar.