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  1. Digital Revolution

    Ongoing Process, social, political & economic change by digital tech.
    Use Electronic circuits to represent data
    • Second phase: when internet for public
    • Web: collection of linked docu., graphics, sounds
    • Cyberspace: entities that exist w/in comp. network
    • Digitalization: process of converting text, numbers, sounds... by digital device
  2. Convergence
    Process which several tech. with distinct functionalities evolve to form single product

    Offer enhanced functionality and convenience
  3. Data Representation Basics
    Refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted

    • Digital Data: Text, Numbers, Graphics, Sound, Video converted into discrete (Individually separate and distinct) digits such as 0s and 1s
    • Analog data: represented using infinite scale of values
  4. Representing Numbers Test, Images, and Sounds
    Numeric Data: Binary number system (only use 0s and 1s)

    • Character data: ASCII, Extended ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode
    • Extended ASCII code uses: eight 1s and 0s 
  5. Quantifying Bits and Bytes
    • Bit: One binary digit; Gigabit
    • Byte: 8 bits; Gigabyte
    • Kilobit: 1,024 bits; Terabyte
    • Kilobyte: 1,024 bytes; Petabyte
  6. Programs and Instructions Sets

    Computer programmers create programs that control digital devices; written in high-level programming language
    Source Code: Human-readable ver. created in high level lang by programmer

    • Instruction set: collection of preprogrammed act. 
    • Has corresponding  sequence of 0s & 1s
    • end product; machine code; 1s &0s
    • Op code: command word (such as add, compare, jump)
    • Operand: instruction specifying data for operation
  7. Processor Logic
    ALU (arithmetic logic unit) part of micro. performs arithmetic operations; uses registers to hold data

    Steps: Fetch, interpret, execute, increment
  8. Authentication Protocols
    method that confirms person's identity using the person knows, possess, or is

    ex. biometics, series of characters, ID/ passoword
  9. Password Hacks
    unauthorized access to your personal data and uses it illegally: Identity theft

    • Hackers use:
    • Dictionary attack: help to guess password by stepping thru dictionary of most commonly used

    Brute force attac: use password-cracking software, range is more extensive

    Sniffling: intercepts info sent out over computer network if can't guess

    Phishing: sophisticated approach 

    Keylogger: software that secretly records user's keystrokes
  10. Ch.2
    Microprocessor Basics
    • integrated circuit designed to process instuctions
    • (usually most expensive component of a computer)

    • Microprocessor clock:
    • Mega and Giga hertz
  11. Today's Microprocessors
    Intel, AMD, ARM
  12. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    Volatile, requires electrical power to hold data
    temporary holding area for data, application program instuctions, and operating system

    • Microscopic capacitors (8) hold bits that represent data
    • Expressed in: Megabytes or Gigabytes
    • Speed: Nanoseconds or megahertz (lower nano. ratings are better)
  13. EEPROM
    (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
    Requries no power to hold data
  14. Storage Basics
    • A storage medium contains data.
    • Records and retrieve data from a storage medium

    Step: Data gets copied from storage device into RAM, held temporarily in RAM before copied to storage medium 
  15. Solid State Storage
    Stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry; Non-volatile
    USB: portable storage device' plugs directly into comp. system unit using a built- in connector
  16. Troubleshooting and Repair
    • Several telltale signs:
    • Failure to power up
    • Loud beep
    • Blank screens and/error message
    • Blue screen of death

    use Windows troubleshooter or safe mode
  17. Ch.3
    Software Categories (FIND)
    Software, to system software & application software

    • System:
    • Operating-LInus, Chrome, Android, windows
    • Device drivers....

    • Application:
    • Spreadsheet, Data management, Graphics, Music, Video...
  18. Application Software
    Productivity software: any type of applic. software that has potential to help ppl do their work more efficiently

    Groupware: designed to help several ppl collaborate on single project using local networks or internet
  19. Utility Software (Type of system software)
    Designed to help you monitor and configure settings fo ryour computer system equip., operating sys., or application software

    Desktop widget: specialized utility program that appears on screen
  20. Document Production Software
    (THINK Microsoft Word)
    • Assist you w/ composing, editing, designing, printing, and electronically publishing documents
    •  Ex. Word processing, Desktop publishing, web authoring
    •         may include spelling checker, thesaurus
  21. Spreadsheet software
    (THINK microsoft Excel)
    uses rows and columns of numbers to create a model or representation of a real solution

    Formula tells computer how to use contents of cells in calculations

    Relative reference: change when you change the sequence of worksheets rows and columns

    Absolute reference: anchored so that it always refers to specific cell
  22. Number Crunching Software
    Provide structured environment dedicated to a particular number crunching task

    Ex. Accounting related softwares 
  23. Database Software
    (collection of data)
    Database software helps you enter, find, organize, update, and report info. stored in database

    Query language: (SQL) provides set of commands for locating and manipulating data 
  24. Software Copyrights and Licenses
    copyright: form of legal protection that grants author of an orig. work exclusive rights

    • Software licenses: defince ways in which you may use a comp. program
    • ex. single user, site, mutiple user, concurrnet, shrink-wrap

    EULA: End user license agreement
  25. Security Software Basics (FIND)
    (designed to protect computers from various forms of destructive software and unauthorized intrusions)
    malicious software/malware: any comp. program designed to surreptitiously enter computer, gain unauthorized access to data, or disrupt

    Ex. computer virus, worm, trojan horse, keylogger, Bot, spyware

    Rookit: software tools used to conceal malware 
  26. Security Suites
    integrates several secutiy modules to protect against the most common types of malware, unauthorized access and spam

    • costs less than purchasing standalone security modules
    • Ex. Norton , V3
  27. Antivirus Modules
    type of utility software that looks for and eradicate viruses, trojan horses, worms and bots

    virus signature: section of program code like unique instruct. used to identify a known malicious program (like fingerprint used to identify individ.)

    virus def: virus sign. and other info. that antivirus uses to identify and eradicate malware
  28. Ch.4
    Operating System Activities
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