Huntington argues that "Clasical Chinese Confuciasm and its derivitives in Korea, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, and indiluted fasion, Japan empahsied the groupover the individual authority over liberty, and responsibilites over rights. Confucian societeis lacked a tradition of rights against the state; to the extent that individual rights did exist, theyw ere created bythe state. Harmony and cooperation were preferred over disagreement and compeition. the maintenance of order and respect for hierachy were central values. the conflict of ideas, gorups and parties were viewed as dangerious and illegitimate. Most imprortant, Confucisism merged society and the state and provided no legitimacy for autonomus social instutions to balance the state and the national level. in pratice Confucian or Confucian-influenced societes have been inhospitiable to democracy"