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Import - Substituion Industralization (ISI)
export-led industrialization instead of import-substitution industrialization....this is long term industrial policy. ISI is for countries that cannot compete with outside industries, protective tariffs
- Culture is destiny.
- Eastern societies believe that the individual exist in the context of his family. he is not pristine and seperate. the family is part of the extended family and then friends and the wider society. the ruler or govenrment does not try to proivde for the person what the family best provides
Means that webs of voluntary involvment in organizaitons that bind people together and give them the political resourses and mutual trust that are needed to make any cooprative form of govnerment work. some arguge that democratic cultre requres this
Lee Kuan Yew
- Singapore's patriach, he managed a marciuls transofrmation in Singapore's econmy why maintaining tight political control over the country. Sigapore's govnerment is decrived as a "soft" authoritarian regime.
- He offered his views on the west and east asians countreis andy why there economny seccuded (because of their collectivist culture) and coined the term Asian Values
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP)
Vote of no confidence
As long as the prime minister can recieve votes from parliment it can stay in power but if the parliment ever votes prime minsiter out he can cast a voate of no confidence and parliment is dismissed and elections are called for parliment members
Present in CCP when High levels leaders hold two or three other offices (wearing more than one hat so to say)
Poliburo Standing Committee
- Consist of 7-9 members and withing it there are rankings and the top one is the genral sectary, then chairmen of central military comision etc...
- these are the people that run the party that runs china
this leads to long term industrial policy, which led to the "miracle"
is strong bureau full of bureaucrats (may have to bs that a bit)
- Internal tie "School clique"
- increase burecratic cohesiveness
is the decrease in the marginal (per-unit) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.
Huntington argues that "Clasical Chinese Confuciasm and its derivitives in Korea, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, and indiluted fasion, Japan empahsied the groupover the individual authority over liberty, and responsibilites over rights. Confucian societeis lacked a tradition of rights against the state; to the extent that individual rights did exist, theyw ere created bythe state. Harmony and cooperation were preferred over disagreement and compeition. the maintenance of order and respect for hierachy were central values. the conflict of ideas, gorups and parties were viewed as dangerious and illegitimate. Most imprortant, Confucisism merged society and the state and provided no legitimacy for autonomus social instutions to balance the state and the national level. in pratice Confucian or Confucian-influenced societes have been inhospitiable to democracy"
- Lenin believed that ordinary citizens do not understand their own real interest and that larger intreeest of society ar enot best advance by aggregating interst thtat citizens articulate. Lenin's solution to this is a politicalparty and political system built on the principals of gardianship and hierachy.
- Mao added mass line
- The state represnts general interst of people (not particular intrests of capitalist) thorough party dictatorship,
- External tie it means decend from heaven
- Tight government business connection
- sharing informaiton/intelligence, joint projgect
- e.g. Korea and Samsung, Japan and Toyota
- this called fro centralized decision making with free discussion at the policy formulation level. Once a decision is made at the top however, all must abide by it without dissent.
- In theory, this means that the party is to arrive at decisions democratically, but that once reached decisiosn are to be carred out wholeheartedly by all party membrs, including the miniority who may have opposed them
- two types of systems:
- Majoritian systems such as in the USA USA aslso has single memeber district pularity voting system
- second tyep is Proportunal represntive system (PR) in this system one cast votes for the party, not the canidate
The 1955 system
- Progressive - versus - conservative division was the defing feature of this system. 4 pillars suppring this system
- Pervasive public consensus in spport of policies to achieve the catching up with the west goal
- Presence of large interative interst groups with close links to polliticalparties
- bureaucracy of immense prestige and power
- system of one party domance (the LDP)
- note all these pillars have either weakned or crumbled
Farms,indiviudual or groups signed up to do a specifc task for their team or brigade in return for a specifed payment. farms keept all profits and were responsible for their losses. this was a contraction relationship