soc 134 Ch. 10

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  1. Slavery
    • One of the most persistent forms of stratification. 
    • an economic form of inequality in which some people are the property of others . 
  2. Caste System
    • A form of stratification 
    • One's caste determines lifestyle, prestige and occupational choices, which are fixed at birth and cannot be changed.

    little movement allowed across strata
  3. Estate System (Feudal System)
    • Form of stratification 
    • develops when high-status groups own land and have power basd on their noble birth.

    Little social mobility
  4. Social class
    • group of people who share a similar economic position in society based on their wealth and income. 
    • essentially an economic stratification system
    • only stratification that does not have legal barriers, but actual mobility is limited
  5. Social mobility
    The movement of people or groups from one level to another
  6. means of production
    land, commercial enterpriseds, factories, and wealth
  7. Authority
    is the possesion of some status or quality that compels othes to obey. 
  8. socioeconomic status
    the prestige, honor, respect, and power associated with different class positions in society
  9. Power
    according to weber
    • a person's ability to affect decisions in ways that bewnefit him or her
    • Generally related to wealth and prestige but does not have to
  10. Prestige
    • the reverence and admiration given to some people in society 
    • obviously derived from wealth and inco me but can also be derived from characteristics such as education, occupation (archived characteristics) or Ascribed characteristics
  11. Upper Class
    Usually believed to include owners of vast amounts of property and other forms of wealth, major shareholders and owners of large corporations top financiers, rich celebrities and politicians, and members of prestigious families
  12. Middle class
    likely to include college educated managers, supervisors, executives, owners of small business and professionals. 
  13. Working Class
    typically includes industrial and factory workers, office workers, clerksand farm and manual laborers. 
  14. Poor
    • people who work for minimum wage or who are chronically unemployed. 
    • Sometimes referred to as underclass or lower class
  15. Absolute Poverty
    minimal requirements a human being needs to survive
  16. Relative poverty
    refers to one's economic position compared with the living standards of the majority in a given society
  17. poverty line
    identifies the amount of yearly income a family requires to meet its basic needs
  18. near-poor or working poor
    the U.S. Bureau of the Census defines individuals or families who earn up to 25% more than the official poverty line amount
  19. Poverty rate
    • the percentage of residents whose income falls below the official poverty line
    • The measure that the U.S. uses to track success of the its efforts to reduce poverty
  20. competitive individualism
    The way to be successful is hard work, strive toward goals, and compete well against other. We are fully responsible for our own economic fates. 
  21. culture-of-poverty thesis
    poor people resigned to their position in society, develop a unique value structure to deal with the unlikelihood that they will ever become successful by the standards of the larger society
  22. colonization
    • invading and establishing control over a weaker country and its people in order to expand the colonizer's markets. 
    • one way for a country to use its power to control another, stratification between societies
  23. Stratification
    ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society
  24. Categories of Stratification
    • race, class, and gender
    • income/ wealth, prestige and power
  25. "Life Chances"
    your place in stratification system may not determine your access to valued resources, but it affects your chances

    Max Weber's Idea 
  26. Social Mobility
    movement of people or groups from one clas to another

    upward or downward
  27. meritocracy
    social system in which individuals earn rewards in direct proportion to their individual efforts and abilities; everyone has an eqal chance to succeed and success is determined by individual merit
  28. Elements of the American Dream
    • Home ownership
    • better opportunities for the next generation
    • chance to get rich
    • secure and comfortable retirement
  29. Function of Stratification  (Functionalit view)

    Davis and Moore
    • fill difficult jobs with more talented people
    • if all jobs had the same rewards people would take the easy way out
    • better rewards= more training
  30. criticisms of functionalist view
    • assumes better paying jobs are more important
    • assumes training for top jobs is undesirable
    • stratification involves ascribed characteristics
  31. Three types of capital
    • economic
    • social 
    • cultural
  32. social capital
    resources linked to social networks
  33. cultural capital
    knowledge of cultural norms, values and beliefs
  34. Children of haves have what advantages?
    • greater opportunity for cognitive develpment
    • greater access to cultural and social capital
    • access to better school
    • positive labels and tracking placements 

    Recieve better and more schooling
  35. What is capitalism
    • =fee markets/free enterprise
    • historical system
  36. invisible hand
    Adam smith thought that the economy should be organized so that if each person follows their individual self-interest, others will benefit
  37. capitalists make money that don't benfit consumers
    • corporate welfare
    • speculation
    • fraud
  38. Reasons for rising income inequality
    • rising salaries for wall street and other corporate executives
    • growing gap between people with and without college educations
    • decline in labor movement
    • tax rates and other government policies
  39. speculation
    corporations can manipulate stock prices through mergers, internal reorganizations, lay-offs, etc. that damage long-term profitaility
Card Set:
soc 134 Ch. 10
2012-12-10 18:04:19
sociology more

The architecture of stratification
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