One of the most persistent forms of stratification.
an economic form of inequality in which some people are the property of others .
A form of stratification
One's caste determines lifestyle, prestige and occupational choices, which are fixed at birth and cannot be changed.
little movement allowed across strata
Estate System (Feudal System)
Form of stratification
develops when high-status groups own land and have power basd on their noble birth.
Little social mobility
group of people who share a similar economic position in society based on their wealth and income.
essentially an economic stratification system
only stratification that does not have legal barriers, but actual mobility is limited
The movement of people or groups from one level to another
means of production
land, commercial enterpriseds, factories, and wealth
is the possesion of some status or quality that compels othes to obey.
the prestige, honor, respect, and power associated with different class positions in society
according to weber
a person's ability to affect decisions in ways that bewnefit him or her
Generally related to wealth and prestige but does not have to
the reverence and admiration given to some people in society
obviously derived from wealth and inco me but can also be derived from characteristics such as education, occupation (archived characteristics) or Ascribed characteristics
Usually believed to include owners of vast amounts of property and other forms of wealth, major shareholders and owners of large corporations top financiers, rich celebrities and politicians, and members of prestigious families
likely to include college educated managers, supervisors, executives, owners of small business and professionals.
typically includes industrial and factory workers, office workers, clerksand farm and manual laborers.
people who work for minimum wage or who are chronically unemployed.
Sometimes referred to as underclass or lower class
minimal requirements a human being needs to survive
refers to one's economic position compared with the living standards of the majority in a given society
identifies the amount of yearly income a family requires to meet its basic needs
near-poor or working poor
the U.S. Bureau of the Census defines individuals or families who earn up to 25% more than the official poverty line amount
the percentage of residents whose income falls below the official poverty line
The measure that the U.S. uses to track success of the its efforts to reduce poverty
The way to be successful is hard work, strive toward goals, and compete well against other. We are fully responsible for our own economic fates.
poor people resigned to their position in society, develop a unique value structure to deal with the unlikelihood that they will ever become successful by the standards of the larger society
invading and establishing control over a weaker country and its people in order to expand the colonizer's markets.
one way for a country to use its power to control another, stratification between societies
ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society
Categories of Stratification
race, class, and gender
income/ wealth, prestige and power
your place in stratification system may not determine your access to valued resources, but it affects your chances
Max Weber's Idea
movement of people or groups from one clas to another
upward or downward
social system in which individuals earn rewards in direct proportion to their individual efforts and abilities; everyone has an eqal chance to succeed and success is determined by individual merit
Elements of the American Dream
better opportunities for the next generation
chance to get rich
secure and comfortable retirement
Function of Stratification (Functionalit view)
Davis and Moore
fill difficult jobs with more talented people
if all jobs had the same rewards people would take the easy way out
better rewards= more training
criticisms of functionalist view
assumes better paying jobs are more important
assumes training for top jobs is undesirable
stratification involves ascribed characteristics
Three types of capital
resources linked to social networks
knowledge of cultural norms, values and beliefs
Children of haves have what advantages?
greater opportunity for cognitive develpment
greater access to cultural and social capital
access to better school
positive labels and tracking placements
Recieve better and more schooling
What is capitalism
=fee markets/free enterprise
Adam smith thought that the economy should be organized so that if each person follows their individual self-interest, others will benefit
capitalists make money that don't benfit consumers
Reasons for rising income inequality
rising salaries for wall street and other corporate executives
growing gap between people with and without college educations
decline in labor movement
tax rates and other government policies
corporations can manipulate stock prices through mergers, internal reorganizations, lay-offs, etc. that damage long-term profitaility