13.1 Prelude to Reformation: I

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13.1 Prelude to Reformation: I
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2012-12-05 11:45:58
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  1. I.                   Martin Luther
    • a.      During second half of 15th century, the new Classical learning that was part of Italian Renaissance humanism spread to northern Europe and spawned a movement called Christian or northern Renaissance humanism whose major goal was the reform of Christianity

  2. I.                   Christian or Northern Renaissance
    • a.      Northern humanists cultivated a knowledge of the classics, the bond that united all humanists in fellowship
    •                                                               i.      Return to antiquity writingsà they focused on sources of early Christianity, Scriptures, and writings of church fathers
    • They discovered a simple religion that was distorted by complicated theological arguments of the Middle Ages
  3. I.                   Christian or Northern Renaissance
    Most important characteristic
    •                                                               i.      Most important characteristic: reform program
    • 1.      Ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves and education of Classical and Christian antiquity sources, they could reform church and society through inner piety or inward religion
    • a.      As a result, they supported schools, brought out new editions of classics, and prepared new editions of the Bible and writings of the church fathers
  4. I.                   Christian or Northern Renaissance
    belief in power of education
    • a.      Belief in power of education= important
    •                                                               i.      Christian humanists believed change in humans will change society
    • 1.      Reformation shattered their optimism says Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More
  5. Erasmus
    • a.      Erasmus
    •                                                               i.      Christian humanist who formulated and popularized the reform program of Christian humanism
    •                                                             ii.      Born in Holland and educated by Brothers of the Common Life; wanderer, conversing everywhere in his tongue, Classical Latin

  6.                                                               i.      The Handbook the Christian Knight (1503)
    • By Erasmus
    • 1.      Preoccupation with religion= “philosophy of Christ”
    • a.      Christianity should be a guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life rather than a system of dogmatic beliefs and practices that the medieval church stressed
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Emphasis on inner piety and deemphasis on external religion (sacraments, pilgrimages)
    • 2.      Return to simplicity of church: understand Scriptures and church fathers
    • a.      Latin bible= erroredà edited Greek text of NT from earliest available manuscripts and published it along with new Latin translation (1516)
  7. Annotations
    • erasmus
    •                                                               i.      Annotations
    • 1.      Detailed commentary on Vulgate Bible
    •                                                             ii.      Reform of church, to him, meant spreading understanding of philosophy of Jesus, providing enlightened education in the sources of early Christianity, and making common-sense criticisms of the abuses in the church
  8. The Praise of Folly (1509)
    Erasmus

    • 1.      Humorous and effective criticism of corrupt society, especially clergy
  9. Erasmus success?
    • 1.      Did not achieve reform of church he wanted
    • 2.      Moderation and emphasis on education crushed by Reformation
    • a.      He helped bring about Reformation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      But disproved of Luther and Protestant reformers
    • 1.      He didn’t want to destroy unity of medieval Christian church, just reform it
  10. Thomas More
    •                                                               i.      Son of London lawyer who had good education and knew law
    •                                                             ii.      Interested in new Classical learning and learned Latin and Greekà public career that made him chancellor of England
    •                                                           iii.      Career in government didn’t keep him from intellectual and spiritual interests
    • 1.      Knew other English humanists and befriended Erasmus
    •                                                           iv.      Translated Greek prose and poet authors into Latin and did much prayer and private devotions
  11. Thomas More:
    Utopia: 1516
    • Utopia: 1516/      controversial work
    • 1.      Account of idealistic life and institutions of Utopian community, an imaginary island in vicinity of New World
    • a.      Reflects his concern with economic, social, and political problems of his day
    • 2.      Presented new social system in which cooperation and reason replaced power and fame as the proper motivating agents for human society

  12. a.      Thomas More
    Utopian society
    • 1.      based on communal ownership rather than private property
    • a.      Residents: 9-hr shitfts and rewarded according to needs; had leisure time and no competition or greedà led enriching lives
  13. Thomas More and Henry VIII
    • 1.      More exposed to abuses and corruption he criticized in Utopia; yet, he justified his service to the king
    • a.      Still, his religion and belief in a universal Catholic Church was more important to service and his intolerance of heresy led him to persecute, which impacted the church
    • b.      He also gave up his life opposing England’s break with the Roman Church over Henry VIII’s divorce

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