# Stats I Final Pitt 5

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 Author: Anonymous ID: 187318 Filename: Stats I Final Pitt 5 Updated: 2012-12-05 13:46:24 Tags: Nonparametric Statistics Folders: Description: Stats I Final Pitt part 5 Show Answers:

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1. Nonparametric Statistics

nonparametric
statistics performed on nominal/ordinal dependent variables

do not require normality
2. Chi-square tests

nonparametric
one of the most popular nonparametric tests

examines differences in proportions involving either one or two variables
3. One-way  chi-square

nonparametric
involves only one varaible with 2 or more levels
4. Two-way chi-square

nonparametric
utilizes two variables with 2 or more levels
5. Chi-square assumptions

nonparametrc
1. independence of subjects

2. Not more than 20% of the expected frequencies is less than 5
6. Proportion

nonparametric
one of the simplest statistics that can be computed

number of responses (subjects) in a category divided by a total number of responses (subjects)

• where ni is the number of responses in the ith category; N is the total number of responses

typically, the population is written as pi,
7. Properties of X2 Distribution

nonparametric
• positively skewed distribution with ranges from 0 to positive infinity
• -never negative

• critical region of the distribution only appears in teh right side
• -not a directional test

As df increases, the critical value of the distribution decreases

As df incerases, the distribution is less skewed

The mean of X2 distribution is equal to df

The variance of the X2 distribution is equal to the 2 x df
8. Chi-square Distribution

nonparametric
X2 tests have their own distribution

family of distributions denoted by a degrees of freedom
9. One-way X2

nonparametric
• can be computed using either proportions or frequencies
• -more common to use frequencies of categories

Example: Is there a difference in proportion of people who support and oppose abortion?
10. Two-way X2

nonparametric
often seen as a test of independence (association)

both variables can be DVs or one variable can be a DV while the other is an IV
11. Cross Tabulation

nonparametric
• Both variables are categorical variables with 2 or more levels
• Variable 1 has c levels and variable 2 has r levels

r = row; c = column

Oij will have a double subscript to indicate position in table

• dot in 1st subscript = row total
• dot in 2nd subscript = column total
12. Phi

nonparametric
• used to measure effect size in a two way X2
• -can only be used in a 2 x 2

range from 0 to 1

• similar interpretation as r
13. Cramer's V

nonparametric
• used to measure effect size in a two way X2
• - larger than a 2 x 2 design

range from 0 to 1

similar interpretation as r
14. Assumptions

nonparametric
even though the assumption is on the expected frequencies, there is a higher chance of violating the assumption when the number of participants is small
15. Fisher's Exact Test

nonparametric
for a two-way X2 test with dichotomous variables (i.e. 2 X 2) where the assumption is most often violated
16. Yates' Correction for Continuity

nonparametric
when the test statistic becomes inaccurate

2 x 2
17. Cohen's w

nonparametric
w = phi

w = (Cramer's V)(square root of q)
18. Within-subject Design

nonparametric
(categorical)

Test of marginal homogeneity can be performed to examine a change in categorical variable from time 1 to 2 (within-subjects [repeated measures] design).
19. McNemar's Test

nonparametric
test of homogeneity for a dichotomous variable

corrects for continuity

df = 1

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