General Science Module 6

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General Science Module 6
2012-12-05 12:59:19
wile science module

Flashcards for module 6 in General Science by Dr. Wile
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  1. Catastrophism
    The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes, such as floods, volcanic eruptions, etc.
  2. Uniformitariamism
    The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of a slow, gradual processes that have been at work for millions or even billions of years
  3. Humus
    The decayed remains of one-living creatures
  4. What are 4 components of soil?
    gravel, sand, silt, and clay
  5. What is the earth's crust made of?
    solid rock
  6. What are the three kinds of rocks that make up the earth's crust?
    sedimentary rock, igneous rock, metamorphic rock
  7. Sedimentary rock - how does it form?
    Formed from sediments (sand, silt, minerals, and other components of soil) that are laid down by water or some other agent.

    As sediments begin to pile up, they can be cemented together by chemical reactions, as well as heat and pressure. This hardens the sediments into a solid substance.
  8. Sedimentary rock - how much of the earth's crust is made of sedimentary rock and where it is found?
    8% of earth's crust; it covers ost of the earth's surface.

    It's usually the topmost layer of earth's crust.
  9. Igneous rock foms from ____?
    ...molten rock, which is usually called magma.  When a volcano erupts, the lava that it spews forth is magama.  When that molten rock cools, it solidifies, forming igneous rock.
  10. What is the difference between lava and magma?
    The only difference is location - lava is on the earth's surface, whie magma is below the earth's surface.
  11. Metamorphic rock is rock that has _______?
    ...undergone change, usually due to heat and/or pressure.
  12. Limestone is an example of a __________ rock.
  13. Marble is an example of a _________ rock.
  14. minerals
    Inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth. They are the building blocks of rocks.
  15. What is the difference between rocks and minerals?
    Rocks - contain more than one mineral and do not have a geometric pattern.

    Minerals - is the same throughout (the chemical makeup of a mineral does not change no matter where you look at it).
  16. lamination
    A single layer of rock being less than 1 cm thick.
  17. laminae
    Several layers of lamination (rocks less than 1 cm thick)
  18. weathering
    The process by which rocks are broken down to form sediments.
  19. What are some causes of physical weathering?
    Roots breaking rocks apart, wind and sand eroding rocks, changing temperatures
  20. What happens in physical weathering?
    Rocks are broken down, an the little pieces of rock that result still have the same basic composition as the rock had originally.
  21. What happens in chemical weathering?
    The composition of the rock changes.
  22. erosion
    The process by which rock and soil are broken down and transported away.
  23. stalacite
    Deposits from groundwater seepage that start on the ceiling of a cavern and form an icicle-like structure hanging down.
  24. stalagmite
    Deposits from groundwater that form a structure that rises from the ground of a cavern.
  25. unconformity
    A surfaceof erosion that separates one layer of rock from another
  26. angular unconformity
    When the strata of rocks below the unconformity lie at an angle relative to the strata of rocks above it.
  27. the Great Unconformity
    The unconformity found in the Grand Canyon.
  28. nonconformity
    The unconformity that lies between sedimentary rock resting on top of igneous or metamorphic rock.
  29. disconformity
    A specific kind of unconformity where the strata are parallel.
  30. paraconformities
    Unconformities that some geologists assume must exist, but without physical evidence to mark the unconformity.
  31. intrusion
    Formed when magma from underneath the sedimentary rock gets injected in the cracks and fissures of the seimentary rock.
  32. sills
    The "veins" of igneous rock that run in the same direction of the strata.
  33. dikes
    The "veins" that runn perpendicular to the direction of the strata.