13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in GermanyL: The Early Luther

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  1. The Early Luther
    • a.      Born in Germany on Nov. 10, 1483
    •                                                               i.      Dad wanted him to be lawyerà University of Erfurtà bachelors in 1502à master of liberal artsà study of lawà discontent
    • 1.      Wanted religion after being caught in storm and promising to become a monk if he survivedà Augustinina Hermitsà focused on assurance of salvation
    • a.      Traditional church beliefs and practices= no answer to his question, especially struggle with penance, which he did a lot, but was still doubtful
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Monks recommended he study theologyà doctorate (1512)à professor at University of Wittenberg, lecturing on bibleà answer to problem
  2. Luther's Answer
    •                                                               i.      Catholic doctrine emphasized that both faith and good works were required for personal salvation
    • 1.      Luther thought humans were too weak to do enough good for salvationà rediscovered new way
    • a.      Humans saved not through good works, but through faith in promises of God, made possible by Jesus’ death
  3. Doctrin eof the Protestant Reformation
    • a.      Doctrine of salvation or justification by grace through faith was the doctrine of the Protestant Reformation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Bible, which provided the answer, became chief guide to religious truth
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Justification by faith and the Bible as sole authority in religious affairs = two main things of Protestant Reformation
  4. Luther and Church
    • a.      Luther, through involvement with indulgence controversy, encountered church and forced him to see theological implications of justification alone
    •                                                               i.      1517: Pope Leo X issued special jubilee indulgence to finance construction of St. Peter’s Basilica
    •                                                             ii.      Luther didn’t like sale of indulgences, believing that people who engaged in this were destined for hell
  5. 95 Theses
    •                                                               i.      Issued Ninety-Five Theses: nailed on Wittenberg church
    • 1.      Indicted abuses in sale of indulgences
    • a.      If the pope clarified use of iindulgences= Luther content= end of controversy
    • b.      However, Leo X disregarded ità thousands of copies printed in Germany, which was already dissatisfied with papal policies and power
  6. Luther Not first
    • a.      Luther not the first oppose; Wyclif was and John Hus, who both attacked excessive power of papacy
  7. Leipzig Debate
    • a.      Controversy reached turning point with Leipzig Debate in July 1519
    •                                                               i.      Luther’s opponent, a Catholic theologian Johann Eck, forced Luther to move beyond indulgences and deny authority of popes and councils and also compared his ideas with Hus’
    •                                                             ii.      Luther saw the consequences of his new theology, but was convinced he was doing God’s works

  8.                                                               i.      Three pamphlets published in 1520, Luther moved toward break with Catholic Church     
    • i.     
    • The
    • Address to the Nobility of the German Nation

    • ii.     
    • Babylonian
    • Captivity of the Church

    • iii.     
    • On
    • the Freedom of a Christian Man

  9.                                                               i.      The Address to the Nobility of the German Nation
    • 1.      Political tract written in German in which Luther called on German princes to overthrow papacy in Germany and establish a reformed German church

  10.                                                               i.      Babylonian Captivity of the Church
    • 1.      Attacked sacramental system as means by which pope and church held the real meaning of Gospel captive; he called reform of monasticism and for the clergy to marry
    • a.      Virginity good, but marriage is better, and freedom of choice is best

  11.                                                               i.      On the Freedom of a Christian Man
    • 1.      Doctrine of salvation that states that faith alone, not good works, justifies and brings salvation through Jesus
    • a.      Being saved and freed by faith in Jesus does not free Christian from good works; instead , he performs good works out of gratitude to God
  12. Excommunication
    • a.      Church excommunicates him in January 1521 and summoned to appear before Reichstag, the imperial diet of the Holy Roman Empire in Worms, convened by Emperor Charles V
  13. Edict of Worms
    •                                                               i.      Edict of Worms: Martin Luther was made an outlaw within the empire; works to be burned; he be captured and taken to emperor
    • 1.      Luther’s prince, the Elector of Saxony, hid him at Wartburg Castle, where he stood for a year
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13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in GermanyL: The Early Luther
2012-12-05 19:18:52
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