13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany: The Rise of Lutheranism

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13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany: The Rise of Lutheranism
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2012-12-05 14:22:26
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  1. 1522
    • a.      1522: Luther returned to Wittenberg in Electoral Saxony and organized reformed church
    •                                                               i.      While at Wartburg Castle, he translated the New Testament into German and sold 200,000 copies
    • 1.      Wide appeal through word of mouth since Germany illiterate
  2. What was Luther's primary means of transmitting idea?
    • a.      Primary means: sermon
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Preaching of evangelical sermons based on return to original Bible message favored in Germany
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Arrival of preachers preaching Luther’s teachings followed by debate in which new preachers won
    • 1.      Reform of the church then instituted by state authorizes
    • b.      Pamphlets also useful through illustrations of pope as Antichrist
    • c.       Use of music taught Gospel
  3. Spread of lutheranism
    • a.      Lutheranism spread to princely and ecclesiastical states in n. and c. Germany, as well as two 2/3 of free imperial cities, esp. s. Germany, where prosperous burghers, for both religious and secular reasons, became committed to Luther’s cause.
    •                                                               i.      Nuremberg, where an active city council led by Lazarus Spengler brough conversion, was first convert city to Lutheranism
  4. Reformation in Germany
    • a.      = urban
    •                                                               i.      ¾ of converts from clergy, esp. upper classes, which collaborated with ruling elites
  5. Crisis in mid- 1520s
    • a.      Crises in mid- 1520s made it clear that spreading the word of God not easy
    •                                                               i.      Luther dissented within own ranks in Wittenberg
    • 1.      Andreas Carlstadt wanted to have a more radical reform by getting rid of all relics, images, and Mass
    • 2.      Christian humanists who first supported him, believing he shared their goal of reforming church abuses
    • a.      When they found out his movement threatened unity, they left (Erasmus)
    • 3.      Younger generation of Christian humanists significant
    • a.      Philip Melanchthon (21) arrived in Wittenberg to teach Greek and Hebrew, he was attracted to lutehr’s ideas and supported it
  6. Peasant's war
    • a.      Peasant’s war was greatest challenge
    •                                                               i.      Peasant dissatisfaction due to:
    • 1.      Peasants not experiencing economic improvement due to lords abusing them and demanding taxes and services= social discontent
    • 2.      Religious revolt as they looked to Luther for support
    • a.      Not Luther, but ex-follower, Thomas Muntzer, inflamed the peasants against the rulers= revolt in June 1524
  7. Reaction of Luther to Peasant's War
    •                                                               i.      answered quickly and vehemently
    • 1.      Against the Robbing and murdering Hordes of Peasants:
    • a.      Called German princes to stop peasantry since they were neeed for his reformation of the church, as well as magistrates
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Luther supported rulers and blamed them for helping cause rebellion through treatment of peasants
  8. To Luther, the state and its rulers...
    Duty of princes...
    • 1.      To Luther, the state and its rulers were ordained by God and given authority to keep peace and order necessary for spread of Gospel
    • a.      Duty of princes to suppress revolts, which they did in May 1525
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      But luther still dependent on state authorities for growth of his reformed church

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