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- a. 1522: Luther returned to Wittenberg in Electoral Saxony and organized reformed church
- i. While at Wartburg Castle, he translated the New Testament into German and sold 200,000 copies
- 1. Wide appeal through word of mouth since Germany illiterate
What was Luther's primary means of transmitting idea?
- a. Primary means: sermon
- i. Preaching of evangelical sermons based on return to original Bible message favored in Germany
- ii. Arrival of preachers preaching Luther’s teachings followed by debate in which new preachers won
- 1. Reform of the church then instituted by state authorizes
- b. Pamphlets also useful through illustrations of pope as Antichrist
- c. Use of music taught Gospel
Spread of lutheranism
- a. Lutheranism spread to princely and ecclesiastical states in n. and c. Germany, as well as two 2/3 of free imperial cities, esp. s. Germany, where prosperous burghers, for both religious and secular reasons, became committed to Luther’s cause.
- i. Nuremberg, where an active city council led by Lazarus Spengler brough conversion, was first convert city to Lutheranism
Reformation in Germany
- a. = urban
- i. ¾ of converts from clergy, esp. upper classes, which collaborated with ruling elites
Crisis in mid- 1520s
- a. Crises in mid- 1520s made it clear that spreading the word of God not easy
- i. Luther dissented within own ranks in Wittenberg
- 1. Andreas Carlstadt wanted to have a more radical reform by getting rid of all relics, images, and Mass
- 2. Christian humanists who first supported him, believing he shared their goal of reforming church abuses
- a. When they found out his movement threatened unity, they left (Erasmus)
- 3. Younger generation of Christian humanists significant
- a. Philip Melanchthon (21) arrived in Wittenberg to teach Greek and Hebrew, he was attracted to lutehr’s ideas and supported it
- a. Peasant’s war was greatest challenge
- i. Peasant dissatisfaction due to:
- 1. Peasants not experiencing economic improvement due to lords abusing them and demanding taxes and services= social discontent
- 2. Religious revolt as they looked to Luther for support
- a. Not Luther, but ex-follower, Thomas Muntzer, inflamed the peasants against the rulers= revolt in June 1524
Reaction of Luther to Peasant's War
- i. answered quickly and vehemently
- 1. Against the Robbing and murdering Hordes of Peasants:
- a. Called German princes to stop peasantry since they were neeed for his reformation of the church, as well as magistrates
- i. Luther supported rulers and blamed them for helping cause rebellion through treatment of peasants
To Luther, the state and its rulers...
Duty of princes...
- 1. To Luther, the state and its rulers were ordained by God and given authority to keep peace and order necessary for spread of Gospel
- a. Duty of princes to suppress revolts, which they did in May 1525
- i. But luther still dependent on state authorities for growth of his reformed church