13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany: Organizing the Church

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13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany: Organizing the Church
2012-12-05 14:24:12
Hour Quiz III

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  1. Justification
    • a.      Justification= start for Protestant doctrines
    • b.      Sacraments also refined since good works downplayed
    •                                                               i.      No longer merit-earning works= divinely established signs signifying the promise of salvation
    • 1.      Based on interpretation of scriptural authority, Luther kept only 2 of 7 sacraments—baptism and Eucharist
    • a.      Baptism= rebirth
    • b.      Lord’s supper= Luther denied transubstantiation, but insisted on real presence of Jesus’ body and blood in bread and wine given as testament to God’s forgiveness of sin
  2. Emphasis on Scripture
    • a.      Emphasis on importance of Scripture led to rejection of Catholic belief that authority of Scripture supplemented by traditions and decrees of the Church
    •                                                               i.      Word of God in Bible was enough authority
    • 1.      Hierarchy of priesthood unnecessary since all followers of God’s word are their own priests
    • a.      “priesthood of believers”
  3. Luther and True Church
    • a.      Luther considered true church an invisible entity, but difficulties of establishing reformed church led to belief that a tangible, organized church was needed
    •                                                               i.      No church hierarchy= reliance on princes or state authorities to organize and guide new Lutheran reformed churches
    • 1.      Secular authorities played important role in church affairs
  4. 1530
    •                                                               i.      1530: German states that converted to Lutheranism: both princes and city councils appointed officials who visited churches and regulated worship
    • 1.      Lutheran churchesà territorial or state churches in which state supervised and disciplined members
  5. Religious services
    •                                                               i.      Aside from church, he made new religious services to replace mass that featured vernacular liturgy with focus on Bible reading, preaching the word of God, and song
    • 1.      Following his own denunciation of clerical celibacy, he married a formal nun, Katherina von Bora in 1525
    • a.      Model of married and family life