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  1. What is a growth center?
    • Area believed to be under genetic control
    • Exhibits 'tissue-separating capabilities'
    • Dictates how much growth and in which direction
  2. What is a growth site?
    • Not necessarily under genetic control
    • Active skeletal growth occurs in a secondary compensatory manner
  3. What is the remodeling theory?
    • Periosteum is the target of genetic activity
    • Bone only added appositionally at surfaces
    • Jaw growth characterized by bone deposition at posterior surfaces
    • Calvarial growth occurs by deposition on ectocranial surfaces and resorption on endocranial
  4. What is the sutural theory
    • Sutures and CT are the primary targets of genetic activity
    • Proliferative activity in the cells of the sutural tissues
    • Endochondral bones grow at epiphyseal plates
  5. What is the nasal septum theory?
    • Cartilage is the primary target of genetic activity
    • Cranial base, nasal septum, mandibular condyles drive growth
  6. What is the functional matrix hypothesis?
    • Soft tissues are primary targets of genetic activity
    • Skeletal structures grow in response to extrinsic environment
    • Functional cranial components (ex: eye guiding socket)
  7. What is the servosystem theory?
    • Nasal septum and cranial base are primary targets of genetic activity
    • Condylar growth is secondary
    • Combination of nasal septum and functional matrix theory
    • Our best explanation for how things work
  8. How much do we really know about growth control?
    • Unknown for certain, just theories currently
    • Revealed by findings in developmental molecular bio
  9. What is similar between a 6 year old and adult body?
    Proportion (limbs are lengthening)
  10. When are neural and cranial growth nearly complete?
    By age 12
  11. Which grows faster, jaw or cranium?
    Beyond age 5 to 15 there is more facial growth than cranial growth
  12. Craniofacial growth chart
    Image Upload 1
  13. What occurs on the maxillary surfaces from 6-12?
    • Resorptive remodeling on anterior surfaces
    • Continued apposition at maxillary suture
    • Increase in transverse dimension
  14. What is late mesial shift?
    Closing of interpximal space on exfolation of primary 1st molars
  15. How much arch length decrease in Late mesial shift? Leeway space in each arch?
    • Arch length decreases 2-3mm
    • Maxillary leeway space=2.2mm
    • Mandibular leeway space=4.8mm
  16. Which direction does the molar relationship head toward in late mesial shift?
    Toward Class I
  17. Possible shiftings of teeth from primary molar relationships
    Image Upload 2
  18. What does distal step develop into?
    Class II molar relationship
  19. What does flush terminal plane develop into?
    Class I and Class II almost evenly
  20. What does mesial step >2mm develop into?
    Mostly class I, some class II and class III
  21. What happens to arch length as you head toward permanent dention?
    It decreases (primary molars bigger than perm premolars)
  22. What happens to intercanine distance as you get older?
    Intercanine distances increases, esp with maxillary canine
  23.  Canine eruption diagram 7,9,14 years
    Image Upload 3
  24. Eruption sequence for permanent teeth
    Image Upload 4
  25. What are the three major problems of mixed dentition?
    • Skeletal/Dental Class II
    • Posterior Crossbite
    • Crowding
  26. What are the treatment options for crowding?
    • Less than 4mm: Non-extraction
    • 5-9mm: Non-extraction or extraction (esthetics, incisor position)
    • Greater than 10mm: extraction
  27. In mixed dentition, can we measure space available? Required?
    You can measure space available, but NOT space required
  28. What is the direct measurement technique for space?
    • Usually done on radiographs for unerupted teeth
    • True width on model/width of erupted on radiograph = true width unerupted/width on radiograph
  29. What is the Tanaka and Johnston method?
    • Predicts unerupted permanent canines and premolars
    • Estimated width of mandibular canine and premolars in one quadrant= 1/2 mesiodistal width of four lower incisors +10.5mm
    • or +11mm for maxillary canine and premolars
  30. What are Moyers prediciton values?
    • Predicts unerupted permanent canines and premolars
    • Uses ratio of mandibular incisor widths to canine/premolar widths
    • Mandibular incisors must be erupted
  31. What are some ways to address crowding in the mixed dentition?
    • 1. Hold Leeway Space
    • 2. Gain space- separation 
    • 3. Serial extaction
Card Set:
2012-12-05 19:42:40

GDA lecture 9
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