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withinsubjects experiment (randomized block design)
A design where each participant is measured under all a > 2 treatment conditions, with treatments presented in random order

withinsubjects factor
The independent variable in a withinsubjects experiment

carryover effect
occurs when the effect of one treatment persistsduring exposure to a second treatment

derived score
where a = the number of levels and number of scores that participant i has.

mixed twofactor design (split plot design)
a design which has one betweensubjects factor and one withinsubjects factor

repeated factor
a factor in which participants are measured on two or more occasions

compound symmetry assumption
assumes that the population variances of the dependent variables are equal across the levels of the withinsubjectsfactor(s) and that the population covariances between each pair of withinsubjectmeasurements are equal for all pairs

quasiexperimental design
include two or more treatment conditions but do not involve random assignment of participants to treatment conditions

nonequivalent pretestposttest design
a sample of participants will selfselect into, or will be nonrandomly assigned to, two different groups. All participants are measured on the dependent variable prior to receiving treatment. One group receives treatment 1 and the other group receives treatment 2. All participants are measured on the dependent variable at a later point in time.

history effect
when one group is exposed to certain events that occurred between the pretest and posttest in addition to the specified treatment and this poses a threat to the internal validity of the study

regression towards the mean
the tendency of extreme scoring participants' scores to fall closer to the mean when measured again

differential maturation
occurs in studies where, in the absence of any treatment effect, the type of participant in one group will mature or naturally change over time, at a different rate than the type of participant in the other group

