Organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests.
A process whereby the state co-opts members of the public by providing specific benefits or favors to a single person or a small group in return for public support.
Party determines the order, goes in order of ranking, public knows the order of the candidates and cannot change that
Closed List PR
A situation where every in it has two alternatives to choose from
Collective Action Problem
A policy sought for in the Soviet Union under Stalin that was to consolidate individual land and labor in to collevtive farms. This was looking to increase the food supply for the urban population.
1) A political-economic system in which all wealth & property is shared so as to eliminate exploitation, oppression, and ultamitely thae need for political institutions such as the state.
2) A political ideology that supports the above statement.
A voting system where electors are obligated to vote or attend a polling place. (Brazil)
Refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance, or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. (Japan, Soviet Union)
Process by which a new democracy matures, which means that is unlikely to revert to authoritarianism without an external shock.
Refers to the political process of movement aimed at establishing democracy.
Transition to a more political regime. The outcome may be consolidated, as it was in the UK.
A theory that resources flow from poor/undeveloped places to more wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
-SMD/Plurality rule election systems tend to have a two-party systems.
-PR systems tend to have multiple party systems
A system in which significant state powers, such as taxation, lawmaking, & security, are devolved to regional or local bodies.
The measure of inequality regarding income and wealth, or the dispersion of it.
Gini Coefficient (Index)
Literally, openness. The policy of the political liberalization implemented in the Soviet Union in the late 80's.
A statistical tool that attempts to evaluate the overall wealth, health, & knowledge of a country's people.
Human Development Indext (HDI)
Rule by an elected leadership thru procedures of questionable democratic legitimacy.
A system in which a stsate extends its power to directly control territory, resources, & people beyond its borders.
Government strategy that emphasizes the replacement of some agricultural or industrial imports to encourage local production for local consumption, rather than producing export markets.
A way for members of a society to express their needs in a government system. It can range from face to face with a political leader to a riot.
Low income countries that are suffering from longterm hardships
LDC's (Least Developed Countries)
A theory asserting that as societies developed, they would take on a set of common characteristics, inlcuding democracy & capitalism.
An electoral district with more than one seat
-Party determines inital order of candidates, but voters can rank individuals higher on a list
-Avenue for greater public involvement
Government in which roles of head of state & head of government are assigned to seperate executive offices.
Literally, restructing. The policy of political & economic liberalization implemented in the Soviet Union in the late 80's.
First past the post, elect one representative.
A political ideology in which the roles of the head of state & head of government are combined in one executive office.
An electoral system in which political parties compete in MMD's; voters choose between parties & the seats in the distric are awarded proportionally according to the results of the votes.