psych final cards

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psych final cards
2012-12-05 16:59:48
psych final cards

psych final cards
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  1. psychology
    the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  2. biological approach
    an approach to psychology focusing on the body, especially the brain and nervous system
  3. neuroscience
    the scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system, emphasizing that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion.
  4. behavioral approach
    an approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants
  5. psychodynamic approach
    An approach to psychology emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives (such as the drive for sex) and society's demands, and early childhood family experiences.
  6. humanistic approach
    an approach to psychology emphasizing a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny
  7. cognitive approach
    An approach to psychology emphasizing the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems.
  8. evolutionary approach
    An approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors
  9. sociocultural approach
    An approach to psychology that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior.
  10. correlational research
    research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together
  11. third variable problem
    The circumstance where a variable that has not been measured accounts for the relationship between two other variables
  12. dependent variable
    the outcome factor; the factor that can chane in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable
  13. independent variable
    a manipulated experimental factor, the variable that the experimenter changes to see what its effects are
  14. validity
    the soundness of the conclusions that a researcher draws from an experiment
  15. external validity
    the degree to which an experimental design actually reflects the real world issues it is supposed to address
  16. internal validity
    the degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable
  17. sympathetic nervous system
    the part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body
  18. parasympathetic nervous system
    the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
  19. dendrites
    treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, which receive information and orient it toward the neuron's cell body
  20. agonist
    is a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effects
  21. antagonist
    is a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter's effects
  22. hippocampus
    the structure in the limbic system that has a special role in the storage of memories
  23. occipital lobes
    structures located at the back of the head that respond to visual stimuli
  24. temporal lobes
    structures in the cerebral cortex that are located just above the ears and are involved in hearing, language processing, and memory
  25. frontal lobes
    the portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead, involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles
  26. parietal lobes
    structures at the top and toward the rear of the head that are involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
  27. absolute threshold
    the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect
  28. perception
    the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense
  29. Weber's law
    the principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) to be perceived as different
  30. rods
    the photoreceptors that process light and dark, movement, and night vision
  31. cones
    the photoreceptors that break light into perceptual color
  32. observational learning
    learning that takes place when a person observes and imitates another's behavior
  33. classical conditioning
    learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to eleict a similar response
  34. unconditioned stimulus
    a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning
  35. uncontitioned response
    an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
  36. conditioned stimulus
    a previously neutral stimulus that eventurally elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
  37. conditioned response
    the learnedresponse to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus pairing
  38. extinction (classical)
    the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent
  39. reinforcement
    the process by which a rewarding stimulus or event (a reinforcerP following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen agian
  40. positive reinforcement
    the presentation of a rewarding stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior
  41. negative reinforcement
    the removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior
  42. extinction (operant)
    decreases in the frequency of a behavior when the behavior's no longer reinforced
  43. punishment
    a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur
  44. positive punishment
    the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior
  45. negative punishment
    the removal of a positive stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of the behavior
  46. Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory
    theory stating that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
  47. short-term memory
    limited-capacity memory system in which inforamtion is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless we use strategies to retain it longer