Nutrition Final

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kbourg002
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Nutrition Final
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2012-12-05 19:37:40
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vitamins and minerals
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  1. Most common/ best supplement taken
    multivitamin with minerals
  2. percentage of the population taking supplements
    75
  3. Five common single dose supplements
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • beta carotene
    • iron
    • calcium
  4. causes the body to go into a false deficiency state when missed
    megadoses
  5. Three symptoms of false deficiency
    internal bleeding, scurvy, fragile vessels
  6. Five arguments for taking supplements
    • -correct overt (obvious) deficiencies
    • -support increased nutrient needs
    • -imporve nutritional status
    • -improve body's defense
    • -reduce risk of disease
  7. Number one reason people take supplements
    improve body's defense
  8. Three situations in which there would be an increased nutrient need
    pregnancy, postsurgery, post illness
  9. Main supplement needed by people who do not eat meat
    B6
  10. Main supplement needed by people who do not eat dairy
    calcium
  11. Main supplements needed by infants
    iron and fluoride
  12. Main supplements needed by pregnant women
    folate, iron, calcium
  13. Main supplements needed by women of child bearing age
    folic acid and iron
  14. main supplements needed by the elderly
    B12 and D
  15. Main supplement needed by lactose intolerant
    D
  16. What may increase supplement need?
    medication
  17. Six arguements against supplements
    • -toxicity
    • -life threatening misinformation
    • -unknown needs
    • -false sense of security
    • -bioavailability
    • -invalid reasoning
  18. Toxicity of which vitamin in prenatal supplements caused birth defects and miscarriages?
    A
  19. time period vitamins and minerals should be consumed
    course of a day
  20. Aside from liquids, best form of supplement to take
    chewables
  21. percentage of nutrients and nonreactives in pill supplements
    1; 99
  22. How to test the dissolving time of pill form supplements?
    mimmick stomach pH by mixing equal parts water and vinegar
  23. Maximum time acceptable for pill supplements to dissolve
    30-45 minutes
  24. What may gummies and gelcaps not contain?
    Calcium
  25. Three misleading claims of supplements
    • more is better
    • name brands are better
    • preparation methods
  26. Recommended forms of folic acid
    synthetic
  27. Recommended forms of vitamin E
    natural
  28. Supplements are ____, so should be kept out of reach of children and not abused
    medicine
  29. percentage of key nutrient needs from supplements
    50-150
  30. Most important nutrient to analyze
    calcium
  31. Three ways vitamins differ from macronutrients
    function, structure, food content
  32. rate and extent that a nutrient is absorbed and used
    bioavailability
  33. provitamins consumed in an inactive form and become active in the body
    precursors
  34. Vitamins can be easily destroyed because of their ___ nature.
    organic
  35. Four ways vitamins are destroyed
    • exposure to light
    • oxidation
    • cooking
    • storage
  36. Six ways to minimize nutrient loss from fruits and vegetables
    • -refrigerate
    • -store cut in airtight wrappers or closed containers
    • -clean before cutting
    • -save cooking water for other uses
    • -cook in little water, low temps, and short times
    • -eat a variety
  37. Best methods of cooking
    microwave, steam, simmer
  38. Water soluble vitamins
    B and C
  39. fat soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  40. Where are water soluble vitamins absorbed?
    blood
  41. Where are fat soluble vitamins absorbed?
    lympth then blood
  42. How often are water soluble vitamins necessary?
    every day or so
  43. How often are fat soluble vitamins needed?
    less than 1-2 times per week
  44. Storage, excretion of water soluble vitamins
    move freely, excreted in urine
  45. storage, excretion of fat soluble vitamins
    stored in fat cells, not readily excreted
  46. Are water soluble or fat soluble vitamins more likely to reach toxicity?
    fat soluble
  47. nutrients DRI has establised a UL for
    niacin, B6, folate, choline, C
  48. Three functions of B vitamins
    • -coenzymes
    • -metabolism
    • -cell multiplication
  49. Where B vitamin recommendations come from
    RDA, AI, UL
  50. B1
    biotin
  51. B2
    Pantothenic acid
  52. B3
    folic acid
  53. B vitamins are ___ on one another, meaning one may affect the absorption, metabolism, and exretion of another.
    interdependent
  54. B vitamins do not produce energy, but rather...?
    facilitate energy releasing from macronutrients
  55. Two B vitamins that have significant cases of deficiency
    • beriberi (B1)
    • pellagra (B3)
  56. Two cymptoms of B vitamin deficiencies
    glossitis and cheilosis
  57. B vitamins from grain groups
    thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate
  58. B vitamin from fruits and vegetables
    folate
  59. B vitamins from meat group
    thiamin, niacin, B6, B12
  60. B vitamins from milk group
    riboflavin and B12
  61. Five invalid beliefs for taking supplements
    • -food supply and soil contain inadequate nutrients
    • -supplements provide energy
    • -supplements enhace athletic performance or lean body mass
    • -supplements help cope with stress
    • -supplements prevent or cure
  62. Max amount of iron generally safe
    10 mg
  63. Structure function claims from FDA on labels
    • -roles
    • -how nutrient performs
    • -how consuming causes general well being
  64. how many calories typically needed of healthy foods per day for adequate vitamin and minerals?
    1500-1600 kcals
  65. bioavailabilty is effected by
    • -efficiency of digestion
    • -nutrition status
    • -how food is prepared
    • -source of nutrients
    • -other foods consumed
  66. precursor of vit A
    betacarotene
  67. minerals are ____, so cannot be destroyed easily.
    inorganic
  68. moved by special carriers
    fat soluble vitamins
  69. primary role of B vitamins
    energy metabolism
  70. Two B vitamins that perform metabolism and cell multiplication
    B12 and folic acid
  71. Functions of Vitamin C
    • collagen synthesis
    • Antioxidant
    • AA metabolism
    • hormon production
    • incread immune system
    • increased absorption of calcium and iron
  72. ascorbic acid
    vitamin C
  73. Vitamin C aids absorption of ___ and ___
    calcium; iron
  74. increases Vitamin C needs by 10 times
    cigarette smoking
  75. Increases needs of vitamin C
    • body temp
    • heavy metal intake
    • trauma
    • meds
  76. defiency of vitamin C
    scurvy
  77. C deficiency symptoms
    • -atherosclerosis
    • -bleeding gums
    • -broken capillaries
    • -hemorrhaging
    • -degenerative heart and muscles
    • -decreased wound healing
    • -loose teeth
    • -anemia
    • -hysteria
    • -death
  78. Toxicity Vitamin C symptoms
    • nausea
    • abdominal cramps
    • diarrhea
    • obscured blood sugar
    • kidney stones
  79. Good sources of C
    • citus
    • DGLs
    • tomatoes
    • cantaloupe
    • enriched products
    • kiwi and red bellpepper
  80. British sent ___ to soldiers with vit C deficiency
    limes
  81. collectively known as retinoids
    vitamin A
  82. functions of vit A
    vision, cell differentiation, immune, bone growth
  83. Vitamin A deficienc y symptoms
    • stunted growth
    • tooth problems
    • blindness
    • GI tract changes caausing diarrhea
    • brain and spinal cord grows faster than skull or spine
    • respiratory infection
    • kidney stone
    • UTI
  84. toxicity attacks body cells like the liver
    vit A
  85. Sources of preformed vit A
    • animal products
    • fortified margarine
  86. beta carotene sources
    DGLs, deep orange and yellow foods
  87. Surprise sources of Vit A
    • sweet potato
    • carrots
    • liver
  88. hormone that the body can synthesize
    vitamin D
  89. sunshine vitamin
    D
  90. function of vitamin D
    • mineralization of bones
    • cell differentiatieon
  91. vitamin D aids in the absorption of __ and __
    calcium and phosphorus
  92. Vit D deficiency in children
    rickets
  93. vit D deficiency in adults
    osteomalacia
  94. Toxicity of vita D comes from ___
    supplements
  95. Toxicity of vit D causes
    kidney stones
  96. Vit D main sources
    • animal foods
    • fatty fish
    • egg yolk
    • fortified milk
  97. adequate sunlight for vit D synthesizing
    10-15 min several times a week
  98. tocopherols
    vit E
  99. primary function of vit E
    antioxidant
  100. vit E deficiency is associated with diseases of
    fat malabsorption
  101. caused by liver or kidney malfunction
    fast malabsorption
  102. sources of vit E
    1 tablespoon vegetable oil
  103. percentage of RDA of Vit E from oil
    50-100
  104. can serve as both a moisturizer for skin of drying agent for blemishes
    vit E
  105. functions of vit K
    • blood clotting
    • synthesis of bone protein
  106. Vit K deficiency symptoms
    • fatality
    • hemorrhaging
  107. vit K toxicity symptoms
    • interference with blood thinngers
    • hemolysis
    • jaundice
    • brain damage
  108. Sources of vit K
    liver, DGLs, cabbage, milk, meat, eggs, cereal, fruit and veggies
  109. 50% of vit K needs can be synthesized from?
    bacteria in GI tract
  110. temporarily reduces vit K production
    antibiotics
  111. genetic disorder where blood is too thin and is not cured by vit K
    hemophilia
  112. Taking folic acid when in need of B12 causes
    neurological damage
  113. thiamin
    B1
  114. functions of thiamin
    • energy metabolism
    • appetite
    • nerve function
  115. thiamin deficiency
    beriberi
  116. thiamin deficiency symptoms
    • heart p roblems
    • wasting
    • drunkeness
    • confusion
  117. best sources of thiamin
    • yeast
    • pork
    • sunflower seeds
  118. moderate sources of thiamin
    • grains
    • enriched breads and cereal
    • dried beans
    • DGLs
  119. Three things that destroy thiamin
    • heat
    • baking soda
    • large amounts of water
  120. riboflavin
    B2
  121. functions of riboflavin
    • energy metabolism
    • vision
    • skin health
  122. B2 deficiency symptoms
    • skin rash
    • purplish tongue
    • cheilosis (cracked skin)
    • light sensitive
  123. half need of riboflavin from
    milk
  124. fourth source of riboflavin from ___ and ___ each
    meats; veggies, enriched grains
  125. Two excellent sources of B2
    Brewer's yeast and liver
  126. stable to heat
    riboflavin
  127. riboflavin is easily destroyed by
    light, irradation, large water
  128. niacin
    B3
  129. functions of niacin
    • energy metabolism
    • digestive tract
    • skin
    • nervous system
  130. niacin is converted from the amino acid ___
    tryptophan
  131. niacin deficiency
    pellegra
  132. pellegra means "___"
    rough skin
  133. niacin deficiency symptoms
    3D's: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
  134. niacin sources
    all protein
  135. best source of niacin
    chicken
  136. symptoms of niacin toxicity
    dilated calillaries, pain, liver damage, ulcers, false positive diabetes test
  137. niacin toxicity
    niacin flush
  138. why take 10x the RDA of niacin?
    avoid cholesterol drugs or pass a drug test
  139. claimed as B4 by the cosmetic industry
    biotin
  140. functions of biotin
    • energy metabolism
    • fat synthesis
    • amino acid metabolism
    • glycogen synthesis
  141. biotin deficiency occurs in the cases of
    malnutrition or consuming more than two dozen raw egg white daily
  142. biotin deficiency symptoms
    • abnormal heart
    • anorexia
    • nausea
    • depression
    • muscle pain
    • weakness/fatigue
    • dry skin
    • hair loss
  143. last vitamin discovered
    biotin
  144. functions of B5
    100 plus steps in synthesis processes
  145. pahtothenic acid deficiency results in
    general failure of the body and death
  146. sources of B5
    meat, fish, poultry, grains
  147. B5 is easily destroyed by
    heat
  148. pyridoxine
    B6
  149. function of pyridoxine is based on
    protein intake
  150. pyridoxine deficiency symptoms
    • anemia
    • bloatin
    • weakness
    • irritability
    • insomnia
    • smoothtongue
    • kidney stones
    • dermatitis
  151. advanced deficiency of pyridoxine causes
    growth failure, impaired motor function, convulsions
  152. PMS like symptoms
    pyridoxine deficiency
  153. B6 toxicity occures when trying to treat PMS incorrectly and causes irreversible ___ ___.
    nerve damage
  154. A women must have adequate amounts of folic acid when?
    one month prior to conception and throughout pregnancy
  155. What year did the committee decide to enrich grain products with folic acid
    1996
  156. what two vitamins work most closesly together
    B12 and folic acid
  157. functions of folic acid
    new cell formation
  158. folic acid deficiency
    • impaired metabolic need
    • spina bifida
  159. folic acid deficiency symptoms
    • anemia
    • GI tract deterioration
    • heart disease
  160. sources of folic acid
    blackeyed peas, yeast, DGLs, liver, legumes, pinto beans and asparagus
  161. Folic acid destroyed by
    aspirin, drugs, antacids, oral contraceptives, smoking
  162. B12
    cobalamin
  163. function of B12
    • new cell synthesis
    • nerve cells
  164. cobalamin deficiency related to
    • poor absorption
    • lack of intrinsic factor
    • stomach injury
  165. body recycles what vitamin
    B12
  166. cobalamin deficiency symptoms
    anemia, glossitis, fatigue, nerve degeneration, sensitvie skin
  167. B12 deficiencies may develop with or after..
    • aging
    • alcohol
    • trauma
    • surgery
    • cancer/chemo
  168. Normal recycling of B12 lasts __ years, but with chemo lasts only __ years.
    120; 2-3
  169. sources of B12
    animal products
  170. Who needs B12 supplements?
    true vegans
  171. who needs B12 injections
    people who lack intrinsic factor
  172. percentage of calcium found in bones
    99
  173. Where is the remaining 1% of calcium found
    blood and other cell tissues
  174. What pulls calcium from bones to maintain levels?
    blood
  175. process whereby minerals crystallize on the collagen matrix of a growing bone to harden it
    mineralization
  176. Bone remodeling is
    constant
  177. DASH diet is rich in what three nutrients?
    • calcium
    • magnesium
    • potassium
  178. Calcium has protective qualities against
    • hypertension
    • cholesterol
    • diabetes
    • colon cancer
    • obesity
  179. Studies say to tone abdominal muscles, one should ad ___ to their diet.
    three servings skim milk per day
  180. best source of calcium
    dairy foods
  181. Three things calcium works with for absorption
    • vit D
    • parathyroid hormone
    • calcitonin
  182. develops when there are high blood calcium levels and causes muscles to contract
    calcium rigor
  183. develops when there are low blood calcium levels and causes uncontrolled muscle contraction
    calcium tetany
  184. Absorption rate of calcium for adults
    25%
  185. pregnant women need how much more calcium absorption rate
    50%
  186. What nutrient can the fetus literally rob from a mother
    calcium
  187. Factors that enhance calcium absorption
    • stomach acid
    • vit D
    • lactose
    • growth hormones
  188. Factors that inhibit calcium absorption
    • high phosphorus intake
    • lack of stomach acid
    • lack of vit D
    • high fiber
    • phyates in seeds, nuts, grains
    • oxalates in greens, rhubarb, spinach
  189. Recommended intake of calcium for adults 19-50 years
    1000mg/day
  190. bone's fullest potential in size and density
    peak bone mass
  191. peak bone mass is developed in
    the first three decades of life
  192. Calcium fortified products
    • DGLs
    • legumes
    • oysters and small fish with bones
    • mineral water
  193. disease where bones become porous and fragile due to mineral loss
    osteoporosis
  194. Calcium deficiency in children can result in
    stunted growth
  195. most prevalent disease in the United States
    osteoporosis
  196. diagnosis of osteoporosis is done with a
    bone density test
  197. number one predictor of osteoporosis
    age
  198. number two predictor of osteoporosis
    gender- female
  199. minimize bone losss with adequate intakes of
    vitamin D and calcium controlled hormones
  200. maximize bone mass by consuming
    calcium and vit D
  201. What offers some protection from osteoporosis
    soy
  202. ___ strength and __ strength go together.
    muscle; bone
  203. Things that play a role in the prevalence of osteoporosis in the category of ethnicity
    • genes
    • environment
    • physical activity
    • body weight
    • alcohol
    • smoking
  204. Five risks of alcholo abuse and osteoporosis
    • enhances fluid excretion
    • upsets hormonal balance
    • slows bone formation
    • stimulates bone breakdown
    • increased risk of falling
  205. key to prevention of osteoporosis
    dietary calcium
  206. nutrients that protect against hip fractures
    • protein
    • vit D
    • vit K
  207. nutrients that help maintain bone mineral density
    magnesium and potassium
  208. Vit A, Omega 3, fruits, vegetables, and reduction of salt can help to prevent
    low calcium levels
  209. contain calcium carbonate
    antacids
  210. three calcium supplements
    • bone meal
    • oyster shell
    • dolomite
  211. ___ doses of calcium are better absorbed.
    small
  212. Three nutrients to normalize blood pressure
    • calcium
    • potassium
    • magnesium
  213. Nutrients integral to bone health
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • magnesium
    • fluoride
    • Vit A
    • vit D
  214. electrolyte associated with fluid balance and hypertension
    potassium
  215. Sources of potassium
    fresh fruits, veggies, whole grains, dairy
  216. Five roles of potassium
    • maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance
    • facilitate reactions
    • supports cell integrity
    • assist in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
    • maintain heartbeat
  217. One should intake at least as much potassium as
    sodium
  218. Adequate intake for adults in potassiium
    4700 mg per day
  219. potassium and hypertension are ___ related.
    indirectly
  220. potassium deficiency symptoms
    • muscular weakness
    • paralysis
    • confusion
    • high BP
    • salt sensitivity
    • kidney stones
    • irreg heartbeat
    • glucose intolerance
  221. potassium toxicity results from
    supplements or potassium salts
  222. potassium toxicity symptoms
    muscular weakness and vomiting
  223. Potassium given into a vein causes
    the heart to stop
  224. ___ greatly affects food content
    soil content
  225. supplements of trace minerals should be no more than what percentage of DRI
    100
  226. very easy to have imbalance of
    trace minerals
  227. most important trace mineral
    iron
  228. percentage of iron found in hemoglobin
    80
  229. carries oxygen in the blood
    hemoglobin
  230. holds oxygen for use by muscles
    myoglobin
  231. Iron absorption depends on what four things
    • body stores
    • food sources
    • enhancing factors
    • inhibiting factors
  232. iron from animal sources
    heme
  233. iron from plant sources
    non-heme
  234. Ways to lose iron through natural body losses
    • GI tract
    • bleeding
    • urine
    • sweat
    • skin shedding
    • feces
  235. most common nutrient deficiency
    iron
  236. low blood counts caused by low iron
    anemia
  237. anemia symtptoms
    apathy, fatigue
  238. appetite for ice, clay, paste, and other nonfood substances
    PICA
  239. when follow through with PICA, causes
    additional deficiency
  240. iron overload
    hemochromatosis
  241. caused by a genetic disorder or multiple transfusion or excessive iron supplements
    hemochromatosis
  242. Treatment of hemochromatosis
    low iron diet and forced bleeding
  243. leading cause of death among children
    iron poisoning from supplements
  244. Iron needs ____ during pregnancy
    double
  245. typical adult diet should contain how much iron
    6-7 g per 1000 kcals
  246. Best food sources of iron
    meat, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes
  247. fair sources of iron
    • whole grains
    • DGL
    • vegetables
    • enriched and fortified graisn
  248. Poor sources of iron
    milk and dairy
  249. iron from cast iron cookware getting into food
    contamination iron
  250. Things to do to relieve side effects of iron supplements
    water, fiver, exercise
  251. surprise sources of iron
    • blackstrap molasses
    • red wine
  252. most abundant mineral in the body
    calcium
  253. how much calcium is typically in a body of a 130 lb person?
    2.2 lb
  254. roles of calcium in early life
    healthy skeleton growth
  255. calcium forms ___ for strength and ridgity for bones to support weight
    crystals
  256. how often do bone cells get replaced
    5 years
  257. helps bone and teeth structure and formation but is at risk in diets
    fluoride
  258. calcium involved in blood clotting
    extracellular
  259. calcium involved in muscle contraction
    intracellular
  260. Statistics of breaking bones
    • 1/2 people over 50
    • 1/4 will die, 1/4 will lose independence
  261. DEXA scan
    bone density test
  262. Risk factors of osteoporosis
    • age
    • gender
    • low BMI
    • Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic
    • smoking and alcohol
    • sedentary
    • maternal history
    • drugs
    • estrogen/testosterone deficiency
    • inadequate diet
  263. Protection from osteoporosis
    • use of dieuretics
    • low phosphorus

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