Causal Effect (Idiographic Perspective)
When a series of concrete events, thoughts, or actions result in a particular event or individual outcome.
Example: An individual is neglected by her parents but has a supportive grandparent. She comes to distrust others, has trouble in school, is unable to keep a job, and eventually becomes homeless. She subsequently develops a supportive relationship with a shelter case manager, who helps her find a job and regain her housing (based on Hirsch 1989).