Practical 3

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Practical 3
2012-12-05 23:24:02
brain special senses anatomy

terms to know
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  1. astrocytes
    • found in the CNS
    • involved in forming the BBB
  2. Microglia
    • CNS
    • act as macrophages
  3. Ependymal cells
    • CNS
    • ciliated columnar cells that line the ventricles
    • circulate CBF
  4. Oligodendrocytes
  5. Schwann cells
  6. Satellite cells
    • PNS
    • surround cell bodies of neurons
  7. Neurofibrils
    bundles of intermediate filaments
  8. Unipolar Neurons
    • one process
    • found in neurons that conduct impulses towards the CNS
  9. Bipolar
    • 2 processes
    • found in eye, ear, and nose
  10. Multipolar neurons
    • multiple processes
    • found in brain and spinal cord
  11. Sensory/Afferent Neurons
    sensory receptors --> CNS
  12. Motor/Efferent Neurons
    CNS --> muscles
  13. what line separates the frontal and parietal lobes?
    central sulcus
  14. what line separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes?
    lateral sulcus
  15. what line separates the occipital lobe from the parietal lobe?
    Parieto-occipital sulcus
  16. Thalamus
    • large egg-like shape in the midbrain.
    • relay station for sensory inputs
  17. Hypothalamus
    found in the end of the thalamus.
  18. what is the name of the 2 pairs of domelike projections on the midbrain?
    what are the 2 pairs called?
    • corpora quadrigemina
    • top is the superior collicolus - visual
    • bottom is the inferios collicolus - auditory
  19. oculomotor function
    controls muscle that controls lens shape
  20. trochlear function
    controls superior oblique eyeball muscle
  21. trigeminal function
    controls sense of touch on face
  22. abducens function
    controls lateral rectus muscle on eye
  23. factal function
    controls facial expressions
  24. vestibulocochlear (auditory) function
    sense of equilibrium
  25. glossopharyngeal function
    conduct taste
  26. vagus function
    involved in swallowing
  27. spinal accessory function
    motor fibers to control trapezius
  28. hypoglossal function
    control tongue movement
  29. sclera
    white part of eye
  30. choroid
    middle layer, contains blood vessels
  31. retina
    most inner layer
  32. circumvallate
    large taste buds on back of tongue, shaped like a V
  33. taste buds on side of tongue
    foliate papillae
  34. taste buds on front of tongue
    fungiform papillae
  35. lateral rectus
    moves eye laterally
  36. medial rectus
    moves eye medially
  37. superior rectus
    elevates eye and turns it medially
  38. inferior rectus
    depresses eye and turns it medially
  39. superior oblique
    depresses eye and turns it laterally
  40. inferior oblique
    elevates eye and turns it laterally
  41. 6 hormones found in the anterior pituitary
    • FSH
    • LH
    • ACTG
    • TSH
    • GH
    • Prolactin
  42. Posterior pituitary hormones
    • oxytocin
    • ADH
  43. tyroid hormones
    • thyroid hormone - low and high?
    • calcitonin
  44. parathyroid hormones
    parathyroid hormone
  45. adrenal glands
    • mineralocorticoid
    • glucocorticoid
    • gonadal steroids - high?
  46. pancreas
    • insulin - low?
    • glucagon
  47. microscope: thyroid
    big, purple cells
  48. microscope: parathyroid
    smaller purple cells
  49. microscope: pituitary
    dark purple, looks like reticular muscle. nuclei are filled in.
  50. microscope: adrenal
    looks like pituitary, very clear, round nuclei