13.3 The Reformation in England

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13.3 The Reformation in England
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2012-12-05 22:44:09
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  1. I.                   The Reformation in England
    • a.      Initiated by Henry VIII, who wanted divorce from Catherine of Aragon due to no heir and his love for Anne Boleyn
    •                                                               i.      Anne didn’t want to be mistress; he wanted son= needed to break marriage
    •                                                             ii.      Relied on Cardinal Wolsey to get an annulment from Clement VII
    • 1.      Pope would have, but since sack of Rome, he was dependent on Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who was the nephew of Catherineà delayed requestà Wolsey fired
  2. Two new advisers
    •                                                               i.      Two new advisers:
    • 1.      Thomas Cranmer: archbishop of Canterbury in 1532, and Thomas Cromwell, kings principal secretary after Wolsey
    • a.      They advised king to obtain annulment in England’s ecclesiastical court
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Most important step: promulgation by Parliament of an act cutting off all appeals from English church courts to Rome, a piece of legislation that abolished papal authority in England = he no longer needed pope
  3. Hurry to marry Anne
    •                                                               i.      Was in hurry to marry Anne due to pregnancy and married her to legitimize heir
    • 1.      Cranmer said marriage to Catherine no longer and then confirmed Anne and Henry’s marriageà Anne queen à baby girl born (Elizabeth)
  4. 1534: Parliament
    •                                                               i.      1534: Parliament completed break of Church of England with Rome by passing Act of Supremacy
    • 1.      Declaered that the English monarch now controlled church in all matters of doctrine, clerical appointments, and discipline
    • 2.      They also passed Treason Act, making it punishable by death to deny that the king was the supreme head of the church
  5. Thomas More
    • a.      Thomas More challenged order
    •                                                               i.      Problem was loyalty to pope in rome was now treason in England
    •                                                             ii.      Refused to support new laws nad tried for treason ; beheaded due to unacceptance of national state over church
  6. The New Order
    •                                                               i.      Thomas Cromwell worked out details of Tudor Government’s new role in church affairs based on centralized power exercised by king and Parliament
    • 1.      Also rescued finances of king with plan for dissolution of monasteries
    • a.      400 religious houses closed and land and possessions taken by king, then sol d
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      King added to treasury and also to his ranks of supporters, who now had stake in new Tudor order
  7. Break with Papacy adn changeE?
    •                                                               i.      Although broken with papacy, little changed occurred in doctrine, theology, and ceremony
    • 1.      Some supporters (Archbishop Thomas Cranmer) wanted religious reformation and administrative one, but Henry refused
    • a.      Still, clergy ignored Henry on matter of priestly celibacy and secretly married
  8. a.      Final Decade of Henry’s Reign 
    •                                                               i.      Preoccupied with foreign affairs, factional intrigue, and effort for perfect wife
    • 1.      Anne beheaded on charge of adultery
    • 2.      Jane Seymour produced male but died 12 days later
    • 3.      Anne of Cleves for political reasons, but was misled by portrait; he saw her and divorced her
    • 4.      Catherine Howard more attractive but less moral= beheaded
    • 5.      Catherin Parr: last wife married in 1543/ outlived him
    •                                                             ii.      Henry succeeded by underage son Edward VI, son of third wife
    • 1.      9 years old
    • 2.      Real control of England to council of regency
  9. Edward VI Reign
    •                                                               i.      Archbishop Cranmer and others inclined toward Protestant doctrines were able to move Church of England in more Protestant direction
    •                                                             ii.      New acts of parliament instituted right of clergy to marry, eliminated images, and created revised Protestant liturgy that was elaborated in a new prayer book and liturgical guide called Book of Common Prayer
    • 1.      Rapid changes= opposed and prepared way for reaction that occurred when Mary, Henry’s first daughter by Catherine of Aragon, came to throne
  10. mary
    •                                                               i.      Catholic who wanted to restore England to the Roman Catholic fol d
    •                                                             ii.      Restoration of Catholicism, achieved by joint action of monarch and Parliament, was opposed
    •                                                           iii.      Marriage to Philip II, son of Charles V and future Spanish king, was disliked
    • 1.      Her foreign policy of alliance with Spain arounsed more hostility, especially when forces lost Calais, the last English possession in France after the Hundred Years’ War
    •                                                           iv.      Burning of more than three hundred Protestant heretics= bloody Mary
  11. Mary Policies
    •                                                               i.      led to opposite of her intent:
    • 1.      England more protestant than beginning
    • a.      In beginning of power, Protestantism  was viewed with church destruction and religious anarchy
    • b.      Now identified with English resistance to Spanish interference
    •                                                             ii.      Her death ended restoration of Catholicism in England 

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