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  1. Digital Revolution

    Ongoing Process, social, political & economic change by digital tech.
    Use Electronic circuits to represent data
    • Second phase: when internet for public
    • Web: collection of linked docu., graphics, sounds
    • Cyberspace: entities that exist w/in comp. network
    • Digitalization: process of converting text, numbers, sounds... by digital device
  2. Convergence
    Process which several tech. with distinct functionalities evolve to form single product

    Offer enhanced functionality and convenience
  3. Data Representation Basics
    Refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted

    • Digital Data: Text, Numbers, Graphics, Sound, Video converted into discrete (Individually separate and distinct) digits such as 0s and 1s
    • Analog data: represented using infinite scale of values
  4. Representing Numbers Test, Images, and Sounds
    Numeric Data: Binary number system (only use 0s and 1s)

    • Character data: ASCII, Extended ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode
    • Extended ASCII code uses: eight 1s and 0s 
  5. Quantifying Bits and Bytes
    • Bit: One binary digit; Gigabit
    • Byte: 8 bits; Gigabyte
    • Kilobit: 1,024 bits; Terabyte
    • Kilobyte: 1,024 bytes; Petabyte
  6. Programs and Instructions Sets

    Computer programmers create programs that control digital devices; written in high-level programming language
    Source Code: Human-readable ver. created in high level lang by programmer

    • Instruction set: collection of preprogrammed act. 
    • Has corresponding  sequence of 0s & 1s
    • end product; machine code; 1s &0s
    • Op code: command word (such as add, compare, jump)
    • Operand: instruction specifying data for operation
  7. Processor Logic
    ALU (arithmetic logic unit) part of micro. performs arithmetic operations; uses registers to hold data

    Steps: Fetch, interpret, execute, increment
  8. Authentication Protocols
    method that confirms person's identity using the person knows, possess, or is

    ex. biometics, series of characters, ID/ passoword
  9. Password Hacks
    unauthorized access to your personal data and uses it illegally: Identity theft

    • Hackers use:
    • Dictionary attack: help to guess password by stepping thru dictionary of most commonly used

    Brute force attac: use password-cracking software, range is more extensive

    Sniffling: intercepts info sent out over computer network if can't guess

    Phishing: sophisticated approach 

    Keylogger: software that secretly records user's keystrokes
  10. Ch.2
    Microprocessor Basics
    • integrated circuit designed to process instuctions
    • (usually most expensive component of a computer)

    • Microprocessor clock:
    • Mega and Giga hertz
  11. Today's Microprocessors
    Intel, AMD, ARM
  12. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    Volatile, requires electrical power to hold data
    temporary holding area for data, application program instuctions, and operating system

    • Microscopic capacitors (8) hold bits that represent data
    • Expressed in: Megabytes or Gigabytes
    • Speed: Nanoseconds or megahertz (lower nano. ratings are better)
  13. EEPROM
    (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
    Requries no power to hold data
  14. Storage Basics
    • A storage medium contains data.
    • Records and retrieve data from a storage medium

    Step: Data gets copied from storage device into RAM, held temporarily in RAM before copied to storage medium 
  15. Solid State Storage
    Stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry; Non-volatile
    USB: portable storage device' plugs directly into comp. system unit using a built- in connector
  16. Troubleshooting and Repair
    • Several telltale signs:
    • Failure to power up
    • Loud beep
    • Blank screens and/error message
    • Blue screen of death

    use Windows troubleshooter or safe mode
  17. Ch.3
    Software Categories (FIND)
    Software, to system software & application software

    • System:
    • Operating-LInus, Chrome, Android, windows
    • Device drivers....

    • Application:
    • Spreadsheet, Data management, Graphics, Music, Video...
  18. Application Software
    Productivity software: any type of applic. software that has potential to help ppl do their work more efficiently

    Groupware: designed to help several ppl collaborate on single project using local networks or internet
  19. Utility Software (Type of system software)
    Designed to help you monitor and configure settings fo ryour computer system equip., operating sys., or application software

    Desktop widget: specialized utility program that appears on screen
  20. Document Production Software
    (THINK Microsoft Word)
    • Assist you w/ composing, editing, designing, printing, and electronically publishing documents
    •  Ex. Word processing, Desktop publishing, web authoring
    •         may include spelling checker, thesaurus
  21. Spreadsheet software
    (THINK microsoft Excel)
    uses rows and columns of numbers to create a model or representation of a real solution

    Formula tells computer how to use contents of cells in calculations

    Relative reference: change when you change the sequence of worksheets rows and columns

    Absolute reference: anchored so that it always refers to specific cell
  22. Number Crunching Software
    Provide structured environment dedicated to a particular number crunching task

    Ex. Accounting related softwares 
  23. Database Software
    (collection of data)
    Database software helps you enter, find, organize, update, and report info. stored in database

    Query language: (SQL) provides set of commands for locating and manipulating data 
  24. Software Copyrights and Licenses
    copyright: form of legal protection that grants author of an orig. work exclusive rights

    • Software licenses: defince ways in which you may use a comp. program
    • ex. single user, site, mutiple user, concurrnet, shrink-wrap

    EULA: End user license agreement
  25. Security Software Basics (FIND)
    (designed to protect computers from various forms of destructive software and unauthorized intrusions)
    malicious software/malware: any comp. program designed to surreptitiously enter computer, gain unauthorized access to data, or disrupt

    Ex. computer virus, worm, trojan horse, keylogger, Bot, spyware

    Rookit: software tools used to conceal malware 
  26. Security Suites
    integrates several secutiy modules to protect against the most common types of malware, unauthorized access and spam

    • costs less than purchasing standalone security modules
    • Ex. Norton , V3
  27. Antivirus Modules
    type of utility software that looks for and eradicate viruses, trojan horses, worms and bots

    virus signature: section of program code like unique instruct. used to identify a known malicious program (like fingerprint used to identify individ.)

    virus def: virus sign. and other info. that antivirus uses to identify and eradicate malware
  28. Ch.4
    Operating System Activities
    type of system software that acts as master controller for all act. that take place in computer system
  29. File Names and Extensions (FIND)
    File: collection of data that exist on storate medium (dvd, cd...)

    file-naming convention: max. lengh, prohibited characters, no reserved words, case sensitivity (rules for naming a file)

    File extensions: realted to file format
  30. File Directories and Folders

    to designate file location
    • disk partition: section of hard disk drive that is treated as separate storage unit
    • Image Upload 1
    • file format: layout of data in a file
    • file extension does NOT define format of a file
  31. File Formats
  32. File Management Metaphors
  33. Physical File Storage
  34. File copies and Synchronization
  35. System Synchronization
  36. File and system Backup
  37. Ch.5 
    Network Classifications
  38. Network Devices
  39. Clients Servers and Peers
  40. Physical Topology
  41. Communication Protocols
  42. Ethernet
  43. Wireless Basics
  44. Bluetooth
  45. Wi-Fi Security
  46. Encryption
  47. Ch.6
    Internet Infrastructure
  48. Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains
  49. Real-time Messaging
  50. Voice Over IP
  51. Forums, Wikis, Blogs, and Tweets
  52. FTP
  53. Intrusion Attempts
  54. Securing Ports
  55. Routers and Nat
  56. VPN
  57. Ch. 7
    Web Basics
  58. HTTP
  59. Cookies
  60. HTML Scripts
  61. Search Engine Basics
  62. E-Commerce Basics
  63. E-Commerce site Technology
  64. Online Payment
  65. Cookie Exploits
  66. Spam
  67. Phishing
  68. Fake Sites
  69. Ch.8
    Digital Audio Basics
  70. Digital Audio File Formats
  71. Bitmap Basics
  72. Image Resolution
  73. Image Compression
  74. Bitmap Graphics Formats
  75. Vector Graphics Basics
  76. Vector-to-Bitmap Conversion
  77. Vector Graphics on the Web
  78. DRM Basics
  79. Signal Scrambling and Digital Watermarks
  80. CD Copy Protection
  81. DVD and Blu-Ray DRM
  82. DRM for digital downloads
  83. Ch.9
    Industry Overview
  84. Economic Factors
  85. Product Life Cycles
  86. Market Share
  87. Industry Regulation
  88. Jobs and Salaries
  89. Resumes and Web Portfolios
  90. Ch.10
    Information Systems in Organizations

    "DOES Not" have to be computerized

    Strategic planning: Executive managers plan organ. long term goals for profitability, market share, membership levels
    Tactical planning: Planning done to achieve long term goals through sales, marketing, or new product development
    • Info. system: collects, stores, and processes data to provide useful, accurate, and timely info.
    • Presenty: refers to system that uses computers and includes comm. networks.

    • Organizations: group of people working together to accomplish a goal
    • Business: Any organ. that seeks profit by providing goods and services
    • Nonprofit organ.: formed to accomplish political, social, or charitable goals, not for PROFIT
    • Organizational Charts: hierarchy of employees in organ.
  91. Info Systems in Organizations (II)
    It can make decisions in response to problems & collect and store internal or external info. 

    • Structured Problem: 
    • -Everday routine prob.; best solution is known 

    • Semi-structured problem:
    • -Not an everyday problem; Process known but may not be readiliy available

    • Unstructured Problem:
    • -One of a kind problem
    • -No solution readily available
    • -Info required to solve not available; require human intuition
  92. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

    Exchange between two parties that is recorded and stored in a computer system 
    ex. ordering product at web site/ libary patrons locate books and check books in and out
    • Transaction processing system: Type of info that provide way to collect, process, store, display, modify, or cancel transactions 
    • Ex. Payroll, accounting, airline reservations, inventory, point of sale and cellular phone billing

    • OLTP: (online transact. processing) 
    • TPS can commit transaction and permant. update database records
    • IF one step fails, entire transaction fails& rollback is issued to return records to original state
  93. Management Information Systems (MIS)

    Type of Info Sys. but used as synonym
    ex. librans request and analyze reports
    uses data collected by transaction processing system and manipulates that data to create reports to make routine business decisions to "structured problems"

    Goal: to improve managerical efficiency

    Ad hoc report: Customized report, generated to provide specific information not available in the scheduled reports

    • Scheduled reports:
    • Monthly or weekly reports the follow a fixed format. They are provided according to a preset timetable

    • Summary report: 
    • Combines groups or totals data such as monthly/annual sales
    • They are used in tactical and strategic planning

    Exception report: Contains information that is outside normal or acceptable ranges
  94. Decision Support Systems
    DSSs help make decisions by directly manipulating data

    • Executive information system:
    • special type of DSS designed to provide managers w/ info. relevant to strategic management activities

    • DSS:
    • typically includes modeling tools ex. spreadsheets, can create a numerical representation of a situation and perform what-if analysis
    • Decision makes use DSS to design Decision models (numerical repre.) and make queries (qx or set of instructions to make a decision)
  95. Expert Systems and Neural Networks

    "Knowledge- based system"
    not a general purpose problem solver
    Designed to analyze data and produce recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on Facts and rules

    Created using expert system shell to make accurate decision

    • Technique: "Fuzzy Logic" to deal with imprecise date
    • "Neural network": computer circuitry to stimulate way brain might process info.
  96. Planning Phase
    Goal: To create "project development plan"

    Planning- Analysis- Design- Implementation- Maintenance
    • Assemble: the project team
    • Justify: the project
    • Choose: a development methodology
    • Develop: a project schedule
    • Produce: a Project Development Plan

    • How to develp. "project schedule": 
    • PERT: analyze time needed to complete task and show when other task can begin
    •    longest path= critical path 
    • WBS: break complete task in to subtasks 
    • Gantt chart: use bars to represent timing of development as  they occur

    *** In JAD: (joint appli): idea that best info sys are designed when end users and system analysts work together
  97. Design Phase
    –How the new system will fulfill the requirements specified in the System Requirements Report?
    –Are there more than one way to solve the problem?
    –What kind of hardware solutions are available?
    –What kind of software solutions are available
    • software alternatives:
    • Turnkey systems: "info. sys. in a box" include hardware and commercial soft. to offer complete info. 

    commercial software: off the shelf products
  98. Development and Testing

    If software is purchased from vendor, it requries some 
    Software customization: process of modifying commercial application to reflect organizations needs 

    • System documentation: target audience for system documentation is programmers, designers, and analysts who
    • maintain the system on a day-to-day basis and implement modifications

    User documentation: handbook included

    • System conversion: refer to deactivatinog old info and activate new one
    •  Direct conversion: old sys. completely deact. and new is immediately activated

    Parallel conversion: old sys in service when some or all new sys is activated

    phased conversion: new sys is activated one module at a time
  99. Information System Data Vulnerabilities
    • –Natural disasters
    • –Power outages
    • –Hardware breakdowns
    • –Human errors
    • –Software failures
    • –Security breaches
    • –Acts of war
    • –Viruses
  100. Corporate Identity Theft
    when company's brand is used w/out authorization
  101. Ch.11
    Database Basics
  102. Database Models
  103. Data Management Software
  104. Normalization
  105. SQL Basics (Particularly the table of SQL commands)
  106. Joining Tables
  107. Database vulnerabilities
  108. Database Security Measures
  109. Ch.12
    Programming Languages and Pradigms
  110. Program Testing and Documentation
  111. Algorithms
  112. Expressing an Algorithm
  113. Sequence, Selection, and Repetition Control
  114. Objects and classes
  115. Inheritance
  116. Methods and Messages
Card Set:

INSY Final
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