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- is the use of words
- whose pronunciation imitates the sound the word describes. "Buzz," for
- example, when spoken is intended to resemble the sound of a flying
- Other examples include these: slam, pow, screech, whirr, crush, sizzle,
- crunch, wring, wrench, gouge, grind, mangle, bang, blam, pow, zap,
- urp, roar, growl, blip, click, whimper, and, of course, snap, crackle,
- and pop. Note that the connection between sound and pronunciation is
- rather a product of imagination ("slam" and "wring" are not very good
- And note also that written language retains an aural quality, so that
- unspoken your writing has a sound to it. Compare these sentences, for
- Someone yelled, "Look out!" and I heard the skidding of
- tires and the
- noise of bending metal and breaking glass.
- Someone yelled "Look out!" and I heard a loud screech
- followed by a
- wrenching crash.
- is an adjective or adjective
- phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or
- characteristic of the subject, as in "laughing happiness," "sneering
- "untroubled sleep," "peaceful dawn," and "lifegiving water." Sometimes
- a metaphorical epithet will be good to use, as in "lazy road," "tired
- "smirking billboards," "anxious apple." Aptness and brilliant
- are the key considerations in choosing epithets. Be fresh, seek
- images, pay attention to connotative value.
- At length I heard a ragged noise and mirth of
- thieves and murderers
- . . . . --George Herbert
- Blind mouths! that scarce themselves know how to
- hold / A sheep
- hook . . . . --John Milton
- In an age of pressurized happiness, we sometimes
- grow insensitive
- to subtle joys.
- includes several
- rhetorical devices involving departure from normal word order. One
- a form of inversion, might be called delayed epithet,
- since the
- adjective follows the noun. If you want to amplify the adjective, the
- is very useful:
- From his seat on the bench he saw the girl content-content
- with the
- that she could ride on the train again next week.
- a final form
- of hyperbaton, consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted
- an aside in the middle of another sentence:
- But the new calculations--and here we see the value of
- relying upon
- information--showed that man-powered flight was possible with this
- Every time I try to think of a good rhetorical example, I
- rack my
- but--you guessed--nothing happens.
- is the recurrence
- of initial consonant sounds. The repetition can be juxtaposed (and then
- it is usually limited to two words):
- Ah, what a delicious day!
- Yes, I have read that little bundle of pernicious prose,
- but I have no
- comment to make upon it.
- Done well, alliteration is a satisfying sensation.
- interrupts the discussion
- or discourse and addresses directly a person or personified thing,
- present or absent. Its most common purpose in prose is to give vent to
- or display intense emotion, which can no longer be held back:
- O value of wisdom that fadeth not away with time, virtue
- that cleanseth its possessor from all venom! O heavenly gift of the
- bounty, descending from the Father of lights, that thou mayest exalt
- rational soul to the very heavens! Thou art the celestial nourishment
- the intellect . . . . --Richard de Bury
- O books who alone are liberal and free, who give to all
- who ask of you
- and enfranchise all who serve you faithfully! -- Richard de Bury
- is an informally-stated
- syllogism which omits either one of the premises or the conclusion. The
- omitted part must be clearly understood by the reader. The usual form
- this logical shorthand omits the major premise:
- Since your application was submitted before April 10th, it
- will be
- [Omitted premise: All applications submitted before April 10 will be
- He is an American citizen, so he is entitled to due
- process. [All
- citizens are entitled to due process.]
- (gradatio) consists of arranging
- words, clauses, or sentences in the order of increasing importance,
- or emphasis. Parallelism usually forms a part of the arrangement,
- it offers a sense of continuity, order, and movement-up the ladder of
- But if you wish to vary the amount of discussion on each point,
- is not essential.
- The concerto was applauded at the house of Baron von
- Schnooty, it was
- highly at court, it was voted best concerto of the year by the Academy,
- it was considered by Mozart the highlight of his career, and it has
- known today as the best concerto in the world.
- repetition of a word
- or phrase after an intervening word or phrase as a method of emphasis:
- We will do it, I tell you; we will do it.
- We give thanks to Thee, 0 God, we give thanks . . . .
- --Psalm 75:1
- reversing the
- order of repeated words or phrases (a loosely chiastic structure,
- to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives, or to show
- All work and no play is as harmful to mental health as all
- play and no
- Ask not what you can do for rhetoric, but what rhetoric
- can do for you.
- one word irony,
- established by context:
- "Come here, Tiny," he said to the fat man.
- It was a cool 115 degrees in the shade.
- repetition of one word
- (for emphasis):
- The best way to describe this portion of South America is
- lush, lush,
- What do you see? Wires, wires, everywhere wires.
- Polonius: "What are you reading?" Hamlet: "Words, words,
- stopping abruptly
- and leaving a statement unfinished:
- If they use that section of the desert for bombing
- practice, the rock
- I've got to make the team or I'll--.
- finishing a sentence
- with a different grammatical structure from that with which it began:
- And then the deep rumble from the explosion began to shake
- the very
- of--no one had ever felt anything like it.
- Be careful with these two devices because improperly used
- I have cautioned you enough.
- detailing parts, causes,
- effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly:
- I love her eyes, her hair, her nose, her cheeks, her lips
- When the new highway opened, more than just the motels and
- prospered. The stores noted a substantial increase in sales, more
- began moving to town, a new dairy farm was started, the old Main Street
- Theater doubled its showings and put up a new building . . . .
- placing a good point
- or benefit next to a fault criticism, or problem in order to reduce the
- impact or significance of the negative point:
- True, he always forgets my birthday, but he buys me
- presents all year
- The new anti-pollution equipment will increase the price
- of the product
- slightly, I am aware; but the effluent water from the plant will be
- cleaner than the water coming in.
- writing successive independent
- clauses, with coordinating conjunctions, or no conjunctions:
- We walked to the top of the hill, and we sat down.
- In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And
- the earth
- without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And
- the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. --Genesis 1:1-2
- The Starfish went into dry-dock, it got a barnacle
- treatment, it
- went back to work.
- using subordination
- to show the relationship between clauses or phrases (and hence the
- of parataxis):
- They asked the question because they were curious.
- If a person observing an unusual or unfamiliar object
- concludes that it
- is probably a spaceship from another world, he can readily adduce that
- the object is reacting to his presence or actions when in reality there
- is absolutely no cause-effect relationship. --Philip Klass
- While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.
- --John 9:5
- quoting a maxim or wise
- saying to apply a general truth to the situation; concluding or summing
- foregoing material by offering a single, pithy statement of general
- But, of course, to understand all is to forgive all.
- As the saying is, art is long and life is short.
- For as Pascal reminds us, "It is not good to have all your
- citing an example; using
- an illustrative story, either true or fictitious:
- Let me give you an example. In the early 1920's in
- Germany, the
- let the printing presses turn out endless quantities of paper money,
- soon, instead of 50-pfennige postage stamps, denominations up to 50
- marks were being issued.
- using more words than
- required to express an idea; being redundant. Normally a vice, it is
- on purpose on rare occasions for emphasis:
- We heard it with our own ears.
- And lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, except Jesus
- Himself alone.
- --Matthew 17:8
- similar vowel sounds
- repeated in successive or proximate words containing different
- A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. --Matthew
- 5:14b (KJV)
- Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your
- good works,
- and glorify your Father which is in heaven. --Matthew 5:16 (KJV)
- mentioning a
- balancing or opposing fact to prevent the argument from being one-sided
- or unqualified:
- This car is extremely sturdy and durable. It's low
- maintenance; things
- never go wrong with it. Of course, if you abuse it, it will break.
- . . . But we preach Christ crucified, to Jews a stumbling
- block, and to
- Gentiles foolishness, but to those who are called, both Jews and
- Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. --l Cor. 1:23-24 (NASB;
- cf. Rom. 13:4-5)
- combining anaphora and
- epistrophe, so that one word or phrase is repeated at the beginning and
- another word or phrase is repeated at the end of successive phrases,
- or sentences:
- To think clearly and rationally should be a major goal for
- man; but to
- think clearly and rationally is always the greatest difficulty faced by
- a noun or noun substitute
- placed next to (in apposition to) another noun to be described or
- by the appositive. Don't think that appositives are for subjects only
- and that they always follow the subject. The appositive can be placed
- before or after any
- Henry Jameson, the boss of the operation, always
- wore a red baseball
- cap. [This shows the subject (Henry Jameson) with the appositive (the
- boss of the operation) following the subject. This is the most commonly
- used variety.]
- A notorious annual feast, the picnic was well attended.
- [Here, the
- appositive (notorious annual feast) is in front of the subject (the
- That evening we were all at the concert, a really
- elaborate and
- affair. [Here the appositive (elaborate and exciting etc.) follows the
- noun, which is the object of a preposition (concert).]
- is a single word or short
- phrase, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to lend emphasis to
- words immediately proximate to the adverb. (We emphasize the words
- each side of a pause or interruption in order to maintain continuity of
- the thought.) Compare:
But the lake was not drained before April.
But the lake was not, in fact, drained before April.
- consists of omitting
- conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items,
- gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous
- than a labored account:
On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.
- is the use of a
- conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause, and is thus
- the opposite of asyndeton. The rhetorical effect of polysyndeton,
- often shares with that of asyndeton a feeling of multiplicity,
- enumeration, and building up.
- They read and studied and wrote and drilled. I laughed and played and
- and flunked.
- expresses an idea as less important than it actually is, either for
- emphasis or for politeness and tact. When the writer's audience can be
- expected to know the true nature of a fact which might be rather
- to describe adequately in a brief space, the writer may choose to
- the fact as a means of employing the reader's own powers of
- For example, instead of endeavoring to describe in a few words the
- and destruction of the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco, a writer might
- The 1906 San Francisco earthquake interrupted business somewhat in the
- downtown area.
- a particular form of understatement,
- is generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which
- would be used. Depending on the tone and context of the usage, litotes
- either retains the effect of understatement, or becomes an intensifying
- expression. Compare the difference between these statements:
Heat waves are common in the summer.
Heat waves are not rare in the summer.
- is recurrent syntactical
- similarity. Several parts of a sentence or several sentences are
- similarly to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in
- importance. Parallelism also adds balance and rhythm and, most
- clarity to the sentence.
- Ferocious dragons breathing fire and wicked sorcerers casting their
- do their harm by night in the forest of Darkness.
- might be called "reverse
- parallelism," since the second part of a grammatical construction is
- or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order. Instead of an
- structure (e.g., "learned unwillingly") paralleled by another A,B
- ("forgotten gladly"), the A,B will be followed by B,A ("gladly
- So instead of writing, "What is learned unwillingly is forgotten
- you could write, "What is learned unwillingly is gladly forgotten."
- the parallel sentence, "What is now great was at first little," could
- written chiastically as, "What is now great was little at first." Here
- are some examples:
He labors without complaining and without bragging rests.
- Polished in courts and hardened in the field, Renowned for conquest,
- in council skilled. --Joseph Addison
- For the Lord is a Great God . . . in whose hand are the depths of the
- the peaks of the mountains are his also. --Psalm 95:4
- includes several similar
- rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or
- together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech.
- examples of zeugmatic usage would include one subject with two (or
- verbs, a verb with two (or more) direct objects, two (or more) subjects
- with one verb, and so forth. The main benefit of the linking is that it
- shows relationships between ideas and actions more clearly.
Pride opresseth humility; hatred love; cruelty compassion. --Peacham
Fred excelled at sports; Harvey at eating; Tom with girls.
Alexander conquered the world; I, Minneapolis.
- establishes a clear,
- contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or
- juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure. Human beings are
- systematizers and categorizers, so the mind has a natural love for
- which creates a definite and systematic relationship between ideas:
To err is human; to forgive, divine. --Pope
- That short and easy trip made a lasting and profound change in Harold's
- That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. --Neil
- To think on death it is a misery,/ To think on life it is a vanity;/ To
- think on the world verily it is,/ To think that here man hath no
- bliss. --Peacham
- In books I find the dead as if they were alive; in books I foresee
- to come; in books warlike affairs are set forth; from books come forth
- the laws of peace. --Richard de Bury
- Finally, we must consider what pleasantness of teaching there is in
- how easy, how secret! How safely we lay bare the poverty of human
- to books without feeling any shame! --Ibid.
- forms the counterpart to anaphora, because the repetition of the same
- or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences:
- Where affections bear rule, there reason is subdued, honesty is
- good will is subdued, and all things else that withstand evil, for ever
- are subdued. --Wilson
- And all the night he did nothing but weep Philoclea, sigh Philoclea,
- cry out Philoclea. --Philip Sidney
- You will find washing beakers helpful in passing this course, using the
- gas chromatograph desirable for passing this course, and studying hours
- on end essential to passing this course.
- repeats the last
- word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning
- the next. it can be generated in series for the sake of beauty or to
- a sense of logical progression:
- Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know,/ Knowledge
- might pity win, and pity grace obtain . . . . --Philip Sidney
- anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key
- word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase,
- clause, or sentence,
- at the beginning of the next.
- If this is the first time duty has moved him to act against his
- he is a very weak man indeed. Duty should be cultivated and obeyed in
- of its frequent conflict with selfish wishes.
- The strength of the passions will never be accepted as an excuse for
- with them; the passions were designed for subjection, and if a man
- them to get the upper hand, he then betrays the liberty of his own
- --Alexander Pope
- She fed the goldfish every day with the new pellets brought from Japan.
- Gradually the goldfish began to turn a brighter orange than before.
- repeats the beginning
- word of a clause or sentence at the end. The beginning and the end are
- the two positions of strongest emphasis in a sentence, so by having the
- same word in both places, you call special attention to it:
Water alone dug this giant canyon; yes, just plain water.
- To report that your committee is still investigating the matter is to
- me that you have nothing to report.
- consists of raising one
- or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some
- A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph
- then use that paragraph to answer it:
- There is a striking and basic difference between a man's ability to
- something and an animal's failure. . . . Where is it that the animal
- short? We get a clue to the answer, I think, when Hunter tells us . . .
- . --Jacob Bronowski
- What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather, discovered in this
- matter?. . . What does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God. --Rom.
- 4:1,3 (NIV)
- differs from hypophora in that it is not answered by the writer,
- its answer is obvious or obviously desired, and usually just a yes or
- It is used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a
- statement from the facts at hand.
- But how can we expect to enjoy the scenery when the scenery consists
- of garish billboards?
- . . . For if we lose the ability to perceive our faults, what is the
- of living on? --Marcus Aurelius
- Is justice then to be considered merely a word? Or is it whatever
- from the bartering between attorneys?
- by anticipating
- an objection and answering it, permits an argument to continue moving
- while taking into account points or reasons opposing either the train
- thought or its final conclusions. Often the objections are standard
- It is usually argued at this point that if the government gets out of
- mail delivery business, small towns like Podunk will not have any mail
- service. The answer to this can be found in the history of the Pony
- . . . .
- To discuss trivialities in an exalted style is, as the saying is, like
- beautifying a pestle. Yet some people say we should discourse in the
- manner on trivialities and they think that this is a proof of
- oratorical talent. Now I admit that Polycrates [did this]. But he was
- this in jest, . - . and the dignified tone of the whole work was itself
- a game. Let us be playful..... [but] also observe what is fitting in
- case . . . . --Demetrius
- consists of a brief statement
- of what has been said and what will follow. It might be called a
- running, or transitional summary, whose function is to keep the
- ordered and clear in its progress:
- Such, then, would be my diagnosis of the present condition of art. I
- now, by special request, say what I think will happen to art in the
- --Kenneth Clark
- We have to this point been examining the proposal advanced by Smervits
- only in regard to its legal practicability; but next we need to
- the effect it would have in retarding research and development work in
- private laboratories.
- I have hitherto made mention of his noble enterprises in France, and
- I will rehearse his worthy acts done near to Rome. --Peacham
- is an explicit reference
- to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order
- to remove or prevent ambiguity.
- To make methanol for twenty-five cents a gallon is impossible; by
- I mean currently beyond our technological capabilities.
- The precipitate should be moved from the filter paper to the crucible
- is, within three minutes.
- Mr. Haskins describes the process as a simple one. If by simple he
- easy to explain on paper, he is correct. But if he means there are no
- involved in getting it to work, he is quite mistaken.
- involves repeating
- a word or expression while adding more detail to it, in order to
- what might otherwise be passed over. In other words, amplification
- you to call attention to, emphasize, and expand a word or idea to make
- sure the reader realizes its importance or centrality in the
- In my hunger after ten days of rigorous dieting I saw visions of ice
- of creamy, luscious ice cream, dripping with gooey syrup and calories.
- This orchard, this lovely, shady orchard, is the main reason I bought
- . . . Even in Leonardo's time, there were certain obscure needs and
- of the spirit, which could discover themselves only through less
- analogies--the analogies provided by stains on walls or the embers of a
- fire. --Kenneth Clark
- emphasizes an idea
- by expressing it in a string of generally synonymous phrases or
- While it should be used carefully, this deliberate and obvious
- can be quite effective:
We succeeded, we were victorious, we accomplished the feat!
- Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers,
- that deal corruptly. --Isaiah 1:4
- But there is one thing these glassy-eyed idealists forget: such a
- would be extremely costly, horrendously expensive, and require a ton of
- Wendy lay there, motionless in a peaceful slumber, very still in the
- of sleep.
- (also called praeteritio
- or occupatio) asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to
- over, ignore, or deny it. This device has both legitimate and
- uses. Legitimately, a writer uses it to call attention to sensitive or
- inflammatory facts or statements while he remains apparently detached
- We will not bring up the matter of the budget deficit here, or how
- like the one under consideration have nearly pushed us into bankruptcy,
- because other reasons clearly enough show . . . .
- Therefore, let no man talk to me of other expedients: of taxing our
- . . . of curing the expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and
- of learning to love our country . . . .--Jonathan Swift
If you were not my father, I would say you were perverse. --Antigone
- (correctio) qualifies
- a statement by recalling it (or part of it) and expressing it in a
- milder, or stronger way. A negative is often used to do the recalling:
Fido was the friendliest of all St. Bernards, nay of all dogs.
- The chief thing to look for in impact sockets is hardness; no, not so
- hardness as resistance to shock and shattering.
- And if I am still far from the goal, the fault is my own for not paying
- heed to the reminders--nay, the virtual directions--which I have had
- above. --Marcus Aurelius
- expresses doubt about an idea
- or conclusion. Among its several uses are the suggesting of
- without making a commitment to either or any:
- I am not sure whether to side with those who say that higher taxes
- inflation or with those who say that higher taxes increase inflation.
- I have never been able to decide whether I really approve of dress
- because extremism seems to reign both with them and without them.
- is a comparison between
- two different things that resemble each other in at least one way. In
- prose the simile is a device both of art and explanation, comparing an
- unfamiliar thing to some familiar thing (an object, event, process,
- known to the reader.
I see men, but they look like trees, walking. --Mark 8:24
- After such long exposure to the direct sun, the leaves of the
- looked like pieces of overcooked bacon.
The soul in the body is like a bird in a cage.
- compares two things, which
- are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or
- some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or
- object is similar to some familiar one. While simile and analogy often
- overlap, the simile is generally a more artistic likening, done briefly
- for effect and emphasis, while analogy serves the more practical end of
- explaining a thought process or a line of reasoning or the abstract in
- terms of the concrete, and may therefore be more extended.
- You may abuse a tragedy, though you cannot write one. You may scold a
- who has made you a bad table, though you cannot make a table. It is not
- your trade to make tables. --Samuel Johnson
- He that voluntarily continues ignorance is guilty of all the crimes
- ignorance produces, as to him that should extinguish the tapers of a
- might justly be imputed the calamities of shipwrecks. --Samuel Johnson
- . . . For answers successfully arrived at are solutions to difficulties
- previously discussed, and one cannot untie a knot if he is ignorant of
- it. --Aristotle
- compares two different
- things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or
- metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing,
- not just that
- one is like another. Very frequently a metaphor is invoked by the to
- be verb:
- Affliction then is ours;
- / We are the trees whom shaking
- fastens more.
- --George Herbert
- Then Jesus declared, "I am the bread of life." --John 6:35 [And compare
- the use of metaphor in 6:32-63]
- Thus a mind that is free from passion is a very citadel; man has no
- fortress in which to seek shelter and defy every assault. Failure to
- this is ignorance; but to perceive it, and still not to seek its
- is misfortune indeed. --Marcus Aurelius
- is an extravagant,
- implied metaphor using words in an alien or unusual way. While
- to invent, it can be wonderfully effective:
- I will speak daggers to her. --Hamlet [In a more
- futuristic metaphor,
- we might say, "I will laser-tongue her." Or as a more romantic student
- suggested, "I will speak flowers to her."]
- One way to write
- catachresis is to substitute an associated idea for
- intended one (as Hamlet did, using "daggers" instead of "angry words"):
- "It's a dentured lake," he said, pointing at the dam. "Break a tooth
- of that grin and she will spit all the way to Duganville."
- is a type of metaphor
- in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus
- for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing
- made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole
- or the thing itself (or vice versa).
Farmer Jones has two hundred head of cattle and three hired hands.
- is another form of metaphor,
- very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some rhetoricians do not
- between the two), in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image
- is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with
- which it is to be compared.
The orders came directly from the White House.
- represents an animal or inanimate object as having human
- of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and
- can also be personified.
- The ship began to creak and protest as it struggled against the rising
- We bought this house instead of the one on Maple because this one is
This coffee is strong enough to get up and walk away.
- the counterpart of understatement,
- deliberately exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect. In formal
- the hyperbole must be clearly intended as an exaggeration, and should
- carefully restricted. That is, do not exaggerate everything, but treat
- hyperbole like an exclamation point, to be used only once a year. Then
- it will be quite effective as a table-thumping attention getter,
- to your essay or some section thereof:
- There are a thousand reasons why more research is needed on solar
- Or it can make a
- single point very enthusiastically:
- I said "rare," not "raw." I've seen cows hurt worse than this get up
- get well.
- is a short, informal
- reference to a famous person or event:
- You must borrow me Gargantua's mouth first. 'Tis a word too great for
- mouth of this age's size. --Shakespeare
- If you take his parking place, you can expect World War II all over
Plan ahead: it wasn't raining when Noah built the ark. --Richard Cushing
- substitutes for a particular
- attribute the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute. By
- their nature eponyms often border on the cliche, but many times they
- be useful without seeming too obviously trite. Finding new or
- used ones is best, though hard, because the name-and-attribute
- needs to be well established. Consider the effectiveness of these:
- Is he smart? Why, the man is an Einstein. Has he suffered? This poor
- can tell you himself.
That little Caesar is fooling nobody. He knows he is no Patrick Henry.
When it comes to watching girls, Fred is a regular Argus.
- is a paradox reduced
- to two words, usually in an adjective-noun ("eloquent silence") or
- ("inertly strong") relationship, and is used for effect, complexity,
- or wit:
- I do here make humbly bold to present them with a short account of
- and their art.....--Jonathan Swift
- The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read, / With loads of learned lumber
- his head . . . .--Alexander Pope
- He was now sufficiently composed to order a funeral of modest
- suitable at once to the rank of a Nouradin's profession, and the
- of his wealth. --Samuel Johnson