Due to the direction of rotation of the props a yawing tendency occurs when the left engine fails, making it the critical engine.
Critical Engine Failed P-factor
Operating right-hand engine will produce a more severe yaw towards the dead engine due to the direction of rotation of the props. More "bite" from downward blade which is further from the center of the aircraft.
Critical Engine Accelerated Slip Stream
Due to accelerated air over the wing it causes greater lift and a rolling tendency.
Critical Engine Spiraling Slipstream
Left Engine Critical, The airflow from the left engine is moving around the aircraft and pushing on the rudder causing a yaw to the left. Right engine has no effect.
Most Unfavorable Weight Factor
Light is unfavorable. An increase in weight causes Vmc to decrease because of the greater horizontal component of lift. With a greater horizontal component of lift (max 5 degrees) less rudder is required thus decreasing Vmc.
Critical Engine Factor Bank up to 5 Degrees
1 degree of bank changes Vmc 3 knots, bank toward good engine decreases Vmc.
Aft CG Factor
A longer arm means more effective rudder and a lower Vmc, but a shorter arm means rudder is less effective and increases vmc.
Sea Level Conditions Factor
As we climb, pressure decreases. Power also decreases with altitude causing less of a yaw and less rudder required. Sea level conditions increases vmc.
Servo or Anti-servo tab
Anti-servo tab used for trimming and returning the flight control to a neutral point.
Flaps and configuration
Manual and spring loaded. 0, 10, 25 and 40 degrees
Plain, SLotted, Split, Fowler
Purpose of Leading Edge Devices
Allow aircraft to operate at a higher AoA. Allow aircraft to fly at lower speeds as well as have shorter takeoff and landing distances.
Leading Edge Device Types
Fixed Slot, Moveable Slot, Leading Edge Flap, Leading Edge Cuff
Reduce lift and increase drag. Often used for roll control and they are deployed at the same time allowing the aircraft to descend without gaining speed.
2 Lycoming O-360 A1H6, 4-cylinder, direct drive, horizontally opposed, 180hp at 2700rpm at sea level standard day. Air and oil cooled.
Hartzell 2-blade, constant speed, conrollable pitch and feathering. Asymmetrical thrust eliminated due to counter-rotating engines.
What is a constant speed prop?
Prop maintaims the RPM selected by the prop control lever regardless of the pitch or throttle position.
Pitch of Prop is controlled by what?
Oil and Nitrogen pressure.
Default position of prop if oil lost
Stores oil pressure, allows prop to unfeather without oil pressure while engine is starting.
downlock hooks engage, springs maintain force until released by hydraulic pressure.
Landing Gear Annuciator Lights
Red GEAR UNSAFE, gear is neither in the full up or full down position.
Gear Warning horn activates when:
Gear is not down and, 1. MP is below 14 inches. 2. The gear selector is in the UP position on the ground. 3. Gear selector is UP and flaps are extended to 25 or 40 degrees.
Nose Gear steering Limits
30 degree arc either side of center.
Two single disc, double puck brake assemblies, one on each main gear.
Two 55 gallon tanks, 1 gallon unusable each tank
2 belt driven 14 volt 70amps.
35amp hour, 12volt.
6 buses. Main, Nonessential, Tie, Avionics 1&2, and Battery.
Fed from tie bus. Standby Lights, recog lights, cabin heater, cabin vent, and blower.
Avionics 1&2 Bus
Bus 1 has Nav1, Comm1, Transponder, Pitch Trim, compass, and audio select. Bus 2 has comm2, nav2, adf, and marker beacons.
distributes power to the other systems through breakers.
Combustion Heater fuel usage
Uses 1/2 gallon and hour from left tank
CG Effects Forward
Requires more taildown force. Requires more lift. Faster TAS required for takeoff and landing, longer takeoff and landing,higher stall speed, slower cruising speed, less controllable but greater positive static stability.
CG Effects Aft
Requires less taildown force, Slower TAS for takeoff and landing, Shorter Landing and takeoff distance, lower stalling speed due to lower AOA, higher cruise speed, Increased endurance and range, Less positive static stability but more controllable.
Category, Class and Type Aircraft
Airplane,Multi-Engine Land, no type.
What is required for the type rating requirement?
greater than 12,500lbs, turbojet, or anything the administrator deems should get a type certificate.