Geo 5: Final

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Geo 5: Final
2012-12-06 06:12:59

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  1. Types of Reef
    • 1. Fringe Reef:
    • -Close to shore
    • 2. Patch Reef:
    • -a little further out than fringe, little boulders of corals in lagoons
    • 3. Barrier reef:
    • -in the middle of the ocean
    • -circular
    • -sunk in deeper
  2. Origin of reefs
    • 1. volcanic island w/ nothing around
    • 2. fringe reef begins to colonize
    • 3. Island erosion
    • 4. becomes barrier reefs
    • 5. atolls created
    • 6. after millions of yrs----->sea mountain 
  3. Where are Coral reefs? 
    • -N30 degrees to S30 degrees
    • -65F to 91F
    • -tropical rainforest regions
    • -clear water below 50m
  4. Coral reef locations
    -Cover 360,000 square miles = British Columbia
  5. 3 countries with the greatest length of coral reef (km)
    • 1. Phillippines
    • -22,450 kilometers of reef
    • -50% of it is still alive
    • -world's largest stretch
    • 2. Indonesia
    • -17,500 km
    • 3. Fiji
    • -5,360
  6. What is Coral?
    • -200 mya
    • -made up of both plant & animal
    • -living polyps(animal)secrete calcium carbonate
    • -zooxanthellae(plant)are blue-green algae.
    • -symbiotic relationship(90% have it):polyps get oxygen/nutrients, algae get CO2 & ammonia.
  7. Zooxanthellae
    • -The coral also has an algae called zooxanthellae ~yellow brown algae that occurs in thetentacles
    • -There is a symbiotic relationship b/t the Polyp and the zooxanthellaec.
    • -The zooxanthellae gives off oxygen and nutrients which the polyp needsd.
    • -The polyp gives of carbon dioxide which the zooxanthellae needs as well as ammonia
  8. Polyp 
    • 1. Polyp: in the words of Dr. Gillespie it’s “similar to a jellyfish that attaches itself to a rockand secretes calcium carbonate”
    • 2. colony of polyps is what makes up coral reefs;
    • 3. has tentacles and a mouth
    • 4. the polyp uses the calcium carbonate to make itself a hard exoskeleton to protect itself
  9. Conservation of Coral
    • -10% all dead
    • -60% under threat by humans
    • -30% are ok
  10. What is causing damage to coral reef?
    • 1. Dynamite Fishing
    • - Philippines, and cyanide fishing for pet trade
    • 2. Sediment runoff
    • - high levels of deforestation,
    • -coral secrete mucus to proect but only temporary.
    • 3. Coral Bleaching:
    • -corals die;
    • -temp increase higher than 91 degrees, algae leaves, common in el nino season, but sediment run off has increased it.
  11. How much is Coral worth annually?
    $375 Billion annually 
  12. How to survive Baja?
    • 1. Buy insurance
    • 2. avoid Ensenada except beaches
    • 3. no driving at night
    • 4. no guns/drugs
    • 5. Bribe cops
    • 6. Only camp in camping book spots.
    • 7. Fill car in Catavina
    • 8. boarder stop always take right side
  13. Warm currents: Where/Color
    • Ex. Florida currents
    • 1. Come out of the tropics
    • 2. Blue water
    • 3. Warm
    • 4. Few nutrients
  14. Cold currents: Where/Color
    • Ex. California,
    • 1. green water,
    • -many organisms in water,
    • -lots of fish, water still cold in summer.
    • 2. lots of oxygen-rich in nutriants(remains of dead thing
    • 3. Most productive(large types of fish)
    • 4. Upwelling
    • -deep water brought to top many nutrients/plankton
  15. Fishing History
    • 1. 40% of the world's populatio live 100km away from the coats
    • 2. Indigenous people did a lot of fishing
    • 3. Colonial Times
    • -fishing changed to ommerce
    • -Whales were used to make oil------>all whales by Massachusetts were captured = whales began to dissapear
    • 4. International fishing fleet
    • -exclusive economic zone (ECZ)
    • -law: every country owns to 200 miles of the ocean within thier coast
    • 5. George W BUSH:
    • -Established Northwestern Hawaiian National Monument
    • - 84 billion acres of protection for 7000 of species
  16. Hook and Line
    • 1. Method
    • -throw hook and line into water 
    • 2. Fish
    • -all types of fish
    • 3. Impact
    • -minimal
  17. Long Lining 
    • 1. Method
    • -fishing boat send long piece of filament with bait
    • 2. Fish
    • -swordfish and tuna
    • 3. Impact
    • -not so good----->you don't get to select the fish you want
  18. Purse-seine nets
    • 1. Method
    • -drop big net from boat, circles fish, bigger boat pulls it in and brings in net with many fish
    • 2. Fish
    • -salmon and tuna
    • 3. Impact
    • -dolphins and sea turtles are getting caught
    • -TED: Turtle Exclusion Device: secret escape way in net for turtles to get out
    • -overall impact:OK
  19. Bottom trawling
    • 1. Method
    • -boat drops a big drift net---->dragged across bottom of ocean---->scrapes down tons of stuff
    • 2. Fish 
    • -Flounder, cod, Shrimp
    • 3. Impact
    • -Terrible
    • -scraping down sea -----> damage
    • -by catch: 25%
    • -every pound of shrimp = 5% bycatch
  20. Pots
    • 1. Method
    • -pot-like cage, animals come to it, bait inside
    • 2. Fish 
    • -crab, lobster, king crab
  21. Fish Farming
    • 1. Method 
    • -chop down mangroves, create ponds with saltwater, grow and eat
    • 2. Fish
    • -catfish, tilapia, salmon, shrimp
    • 3. Impact
    • -Bad for manrove
    • -Salmons use restroom = bad for you
    • -mercury poisoning can occur from fish
  22. Pleistocene
    • - Ice age
    • -12,000 years - 2.5 million
  23. Holocene
    12,000 years ago aka Antropecene = human epoc.
  24. Glacial period
    -an interval of time within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances
  25. Interglacial period
    - a geological interval of warmer global average temperature that separates glacial periods within an ice age.
  26. How do we know Temperature over the last 85,000 years?
    • 1.Ice cores, Isotope dating
    • - O16: lighter, cold
    • - O18: heavier, hold
  27. Carbon dating
    • 1. One of the methods used to reconstruct climate of previous years
    • 2. Tells you how old the sediment is by finding the carbon in the sediment and finding out howold that carbon particle is
    • 3. Looks at 2 diff isotopes: C12 and C14
    • 4. C12~ stable, doesn’t decay
    • 5. C14~ unstable, does decay, and decays at a predictable rate over time
    • 6. By looking at the ratio of C14 and C12 in sediments, you can figure out what year it is from
    • 7. With carbon dating, you can date stuff back 40,000BP
  28. Tree Cores
    • 1. Temperature and Precipitation
    • -A device drills into a tree and a tray is placed inside which takes the tree core out.
    • -Each line on the core signifies a year.
    • -Small rings depict a dry year
    • -big rings depict a wet year.
    • -Can reconstruct 4,700 years just by the size of the rings.
  29. Sangamonian 
    • *Warmer than today
    • 1. Refers to an Interglacial period
    • 2. 130,000 years ago it was actually warmer than it is today, however, the temp has been risingover the years, so we may reach that point again
  30. Reasons we know Global warming is happening
    • 1.Temperature Gauges: it started at 1.4 degrees on a global scale
    • -Since 1995, 12 years have been the warmest years of all time
    • 2. Ice is melting: the Greenland ice sheet had its fastest melt ever this summer, as well as the Glacier in South America
    • 3. Sea Level Rise: think we have gained 6-9 inches in the 20th century due to the ice sheets melting
  31. Human impact: global warmng
    • 1. Humans release green house gases which prevent longwave radiation from escaping backout of the atmosphere and causes the earth to warm
    • Ex) CO2, Methane
    • 2. By looking at sediment cores we can determine how much carbon we had in the atmosphere
    • 3. 100,000 years ago we have 220 parts per million Co2 in the atmosphere
    • 4. From 1800 to 2000: 270-360 PPM
    • 5. 2010: 375 PPM ~clearly humans are adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
  32. OPEC Nations List and which ones are Democracies?
    • 1. Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE,Venezuela
    • 2. None of these nations are Democracies so we should not support them by buying their oil
  33. Air pollution in US
    • 1. Automobiles ½ source of all air pollution:
    • -US. 200 million cars
    • 2. Photochemical Smog: smog that is a mixture of smoke and fog that reacts with sunlight.
    • -Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen Oxide, Sunlight chemical reaction,Thermal Inververion Layer
  34. Ozone:why good?
    • 1. Good ozone is 15-55 km
    • 2. Good Ozone protects up by Intercepting UV radiation from the sun so not all of it enters into the atmosphere
    • 3. ozone is “good up high, but bad nearby”
  35. Manufactured Gases
    • 1. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s),
    • -Releases Chlorine----- breaks up O3
    • -Not once up to 100,000 times
  36. Kyoto Protocol
    • 1. 191 countries signed the protocol to combat the increase in Carbon dioxide
    • 2. All of them Agreed:
    • a. The temp will increase from 1.5 degrees Celsius to 5.8 degrees Celsius in the next 100 years
    • b. Want to reduce their GHG emissions on average by 5.2% to get back to the 1990 levels
    • c. Goal in 2010 was to cut 29% of carbon emissions from each country
    • 3. The US is the biggest Co2 emitter that has not signed on to the Kyoto Protocol
  37. Arnold and California Global Warming Solution Act of 2006
    • 1. Under Arnold, CA has developed climate control programs that are higher than the Kyoto protocol
    • 2. The California Global Warming Solution Act of 2006: wants to reduce its GHG emissions to the 1990 level by 2020, representing a 25% decrease overall
    • a. Means: more renewable energy, less emissions from cars, want a million solar roof by2020, 70,000 cars in CA had to be “clean cars”
    • 3. Led to The CA carbon exchange~ companies can buy and sell carbon “credits”, based onwhether they will emit more carbon than their limit, or if they will emit less than their limit
    • 4. CA is the most progressive state when it comes to climate change
    • 5. ZEV= zero emissions vehicle
    • a. CA said we needed to have certain amount of ZEV by a certain year, and the bush administration sued the state of CA because they thought the CA law was tooprogressive
  38. Renewable Energy (%) in US in 2002, 2004, 2012 (April)
    • 2002: 8.9%
    • 2004: 8.8%
    • 2012: 12.7%
  39. Renewable Energy % in US? Sources
    • Hydropower 42%
    • Wood 31%
    • Biofuels 11%
    • Waste 6%
    • Geothermal 5%
    • Wind 4%
    • Solar 1%
  40. Hydropower: Good/Bad
    • 1. Good:
    • -Long lived, lasts for a long time
    • -Requires no fuel
    • -Little maintenance requiredœ
    • 2. Bad:
    • -Can flood large areas with water
    • -Cut off streams that fish use rivers as migration routes -Destroys large groups of habitat
  41. Geothermal: Good/Bad
    • 1. Good:
    • -Lots of energy replenished rapidly
    • -No price fluctuation
    • -Most green of all renewable energy, no combustion at alœ
    • 2. Bad:
    • -Steep cost
    • -Deep drilling of the crust
    • -Maintenance difficult and dangerous,
  42. Solar: Good/Bad
    • 1. Good:
    • -Endlessly renewable
    • -Very low maintainence
    • -Low premium on space used when used in residential areas, high premium when solar energy gFarmsh are implementedœ
    • 2. Bad:
    • -Harmful chemicals released to environment if solar panels are improperly disposed of
    • -High spatial cost when not added over existing structures
  43. Wind Energy: Good/Bad
    • 1. Good
    • -Very low maintainence
    • -Easy to develop, all that is required is wind
    • -little environmental impact
    • 2. Bad
    • -Potentially harmful to birds who get caught by the windmill arms
    • -Can disrupt habitats of prairies where these are installed
  44. Ethanol: Good/Bad
    • 1. Good:
    • -Comes mostly from corn crop
    • -Much cheaper than
    • -Currently more ethanol then is being used
    • 2. Bad:
    • -Requires a large amount of corn to produce enough ethanol to be useful
    • -Lots of acerage required to equate to oil usage
    • -Still uses oil (Diesel) in refining, transporting, and harvesting
    • -Crop requires large infusions of nitrogen and pesticides to grow
  45. NRDC
    • 1. 98 % of its materials were recycled for use in the new building. 100 % recycled orrecyclable materials. Including Melted hand guns
    • 2. 70 % less water than a standard building of its size.
    • 3. cut consumption of electricity nearly 60% by maximizing natural light and using efficientfixtures and appliances, task lighting, dimmable electronic ballasts and occupancysensors.
    • 4. In addition, the building
  46. Santa Monica Urban runoff recycling facility (SMURF)
    • 1. How it Works
    • a. In LA, 6,500 miles of sewage lines (600 sewage spills a year) and so this facilitydoes the following with that sewage:
    • -The runoff goes into pipes which first goes through a filter that takes outtrash
    • -it then goes through a dissolved air filtration system in which waterbecomes degreased
    • -after it goes through a degridder
    • -then through another microfilter
    • -The last step is that the water gets hits with a UV ray to kill any germs left
    • 1. The water is not drinkable but it can be used for things such as toflush toilets or to water the lawn.
    • 2. dry weather runoff water is cleaned
    • 3. costed 9 million dollars
    • 4. saves ½ million gallons a day
  47. GPS: How it works
    • -Uses 42 satellites to triangulate your location
    • -the GPS unit sends out a signal
    • -it calculates your angle and distance from the satellites
  48. GIS: Geographic Information Systems
    • -Computer program used for spatial analysis
    • -allows you to add different layers to a map to do things like track land cover change
    • -help determine what the cause of an outbreak is
    • -Created by Dr.Snow with the cholera outbreak
  49. Vector Data: Point or Node, Line or Arc, Area or Polygons
    • 1. Point/Node: 
    • -used in GIS to represent a single point on a map
    • 2. Line/Arc
    • -represents thngs like streets on a map
    • 3. Area/Polygons: represents things like neighborhoods on a map
  50. Power of the GIS is overlap and spatial analysis what can it be used for?
    • 1. Urban planning
    • -where the gas lines, water lines
    • 2. Business
    • -where to place businesses
    • 3. Transportation
    • 4. Health
    • -see if pesticide use is cause of ailments by mapping fields, crops, and pesticide use
    • 5. Natural resource managaement
    • -monitoring land cover change. light pollution effect on plants and animals, projected global warming, phenology 
  51. Remote Sensing: Study of the Earth without Direct Contact
    • -Using satellites to study the earth in near real time
    • -allows you to obtain data through things, might otherwise be obstructive, like cloud cover or darkness
  52. Raster Data: Pixel: Grid Cell
    • -Used to display data obtained through remote sensing
    • -Each pizel records in the Electromagnetic Spectrum
  53. Wavelength
    • -UV
    • -Visible
    • -Infrared
    • -Thermal
    • -Microwaves
    • -Radiowaves
  54. Passive Sensors
    • -Used in remote sensing
    • -only records waves that occur naturally, like solar radiation
    • -does not actively send out a signal for measurement
  55. Active Sensors: Remote sensing
    • 1. when a satellite actively sends out a signal and it is reflected back
    • -Radar: Radio Detection and Ranging
    • -uses microwaves to measure elevation and microtopography 
    • -able to measure though clouds
    • -Lidar:Light Detection and Ranging
    • -uses a laser to measure microtopography, able to fly over forests and see the forest with the laser 
  56. Aquifer
    -underground reservoirs in which groundwater is stored
  57. Saltwater intrusion
    • -the movement of seawater into a freshwater aquifer near the coast.
    • -it occurs along coastal areas when groundwater is depleted faster than it recharges.
    • -It also occurs in low-lying areas due to sea-level rise associated w/ global climate change
  58. Ogallala aquifer
    • -largest groundwater deposit in the world which lies under South Dakota,Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, but largely in Nebraska, Kansas and Texas.
    • -Farmers draw water as much as 40 times faster than nature replaces it.
    • -Rapid depletion has lowered water table more than 30m (100 feet) in some places.
    • -Hydrologists predict that groundwater will eventually drop in all areas of Ogallala to a level uneconomical to pump.
  59. What are the main types of water pollution (8 types)?
    • 1. Sewage
    • 2. disease-causing agents
    • 3. sediment pollution
    • 4. inorganic plant and algal nutrients
    • 5. organic compounds
    • 6. inorganic chemicals
    • 7. radioactive substances
    • 8. thermalpollution
  60. What is point and non-point source water pollution?
    • 1. Point Source water pollution 
    • -can be traced to a specific spot
    • -it is discharged into the environment through pipes, sewers from factories or sewage treatment plants
    • 2. Nonpoint source pollution 
    • -enters bodies of water over large areas rather than being concentrated at a single point entry
    • -includes agricultural runoff, mining wastes, municipal waste
  61. Two national Acts to lower water pollution in the US? 
    • 1. Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
    • -set uniform federal standards for drinking water, to guarantee safe public water supplies throughout the united states
    • 2. Clean Water Act
    • -eliminate the discharge of pollutants in U.S waterways
    • -attain water quality levels that make these waterways safe for fishing and swimmng
  62. What are seagrass beds and why important?
    • -Seagrasses are flowering plants adapted to complete submersion in salty ocean water.
    • -They are important because their roots and rhizomes help stabilize sediments, reduce erosions,provide food and and habitat to many sea organisms.
  63. What is a Benthic environment?
    Ocean floor that extends from intertidal zone to the deep ocean trenches
  64. What is bycatch?
    The fishes, marine mammals, sea turtles, sea birds, and other animals get caight unintentionally in commercial fishing catch
  65. What is aquaculture and examples of fish we wat from aquaculture?
    • -The growing of aquatic organisms for human consumption
    • -fishes, shellfish, seaweeds
  66. Why does CO2 fluctuate over one year?
    • Over one year, carbon has seasonal fluctuations that correspond to
    • -winter (a high level of CO2)when plants are not actively growing and absorbing CO2
    • -summer ( a low level of CO2)when plants are growing and absorbing CO2.
  67. What are the bad effects of global warming?
    • -Melting land and ocean ice; sea-level rise; changes in precipitation patterns (i.e. increasedfrequency and duration of droughts)
    • -impacts on agriculture, human health and other organisms.
    • -Sea level rise may inundate some river deltas which is bad for agriculture.
    • -Certain agricultural pests and disease-causing organisms will proliferate and reduce crop yields. -Severeheat waves will increase number of heat-related illnesses and deaths.
  68. What is acid rain? 
    • -"Acid rain" is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition (deposited material)from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids.
    • -Acidrain forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel combustion react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen and other chemicals.
  69. How does petroleum refining work?
    • 1) Heated crude oil is pumped into fractionation tower.
    • 2) Fractionation tower separates crude oil products based on boiling points.
    • 3) Compounds with the highest boiling points are produced lowest in the tower.
    • 4) Compounds with lowest boiling points rise highest in the tower.
    • -During petroleum refining, the compounds are separated into different products.
  70. How does nuclear energy work?
    • -Nuclear energy is the energy released by nuclear fission or fusion.
    • -Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller fragments. Energy is released when a single neutron crashes into a large atom of one element, such as uranium, and splits it into two smaller atoms of different elements.
    • -In nuclear fusion, two small atoms are combined, forming one larger atom of a different element.
  71. Is nuclear energy cleaner than coal?
    • -Nuclear energy emits few pollutants into the atmosphere and does not produce CO2.
    • -It causes less air pollution.
    • -However, nuclear energy generates radioactive waste that are extremely hazardous.
  72. What is a meltdown as it related to nuclear energy?
    At high temperatures, the metal encasing uranium fuel can melt, releasing radiation; this is called a meltdown
  73. Yucca Mountain
    In a 1987 amendment to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Congress identified Yucca MountainI n Nevada as the only candidate for a permanent underground storage site for high levelradioactive wastes from commercially operated power plants.
  74. How much does the average household spend on energy each year?
    The average US household spends several thousand dollars each year on utility bills
  75. What are example of Green architecture?
    • -The Hearst Tower in Manhattan offers important contributions to green architecture.
    • -NRDC (Natural resources defense council) office building in Santa Monica
  76. Who was John Muir and what did he do?
    John Muir was a naturalist and writer, originally from Scotland, was a biocentric preservationist;founded the Sierra Club (national conservation organization)
  77. Who was Rachel Carson and what did she do?
    (1907-1964); marine biologist wrote about interrelationships between organisms and theirenvironment; wrote Silent Springs which eventually led to the restriction of using DDT and pesticides because of their dangerous effects.
  78. When was the first Earth Day?
    April 22, 1970
  79. Top 5 causes of death in US?
    • 1. Heart Disease (1 in 5)
    • 2. Cancer (1 in 7)
    • 3. Stroke (1 in 24)
    • 4. Motor Vehicle Accident (1 in 84)
    • 5. Suicide (1 in 117)
  80. What does E. Coli tell you?
    Disease-causing agents are present, pathogens in water
  81. How does DDT work up the food chain?
    • bioaccumulation (buildup of a toxicant in an organism’s tissue)
    • -leads to biological magnification(increase of toxicant concentrations as a toxicant passes through successive levels of the food chain);
    • -passes from predator to predator