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- 1931 in Alabama
- nine black boys (ages 13-20) were accused of raping two
- white women on a train. They all went to trial and were found guilty and given harsh sentences.
- The Communist Party stepped in and got the
- boys an appeal because of racial discrimination but were still found guilty.
- There was then another trial and in the end four were dismissed others got parole and some escaped.
- Aug 1955; Mississippi
- murdered by two white men after talking fresh to a white woman.
- Mutilated, shot in the head, and tied to a
- cotton gin fan, then thrown into the Tallahatchie River.
- Till's murder focused national attention on civil rights abuses in the South and mobilized the Civil Rights Movement.
Roosevelt's Black Cabinet
- Mary McLeod Bethune was the leader.
- They tried to advance the economic, educational, and social status of African Americans.
- President Roosevelt made history by appointing an unprecedented number of African Americans
- to high positions (45 blacks in cabinet offices by 1935).
- Summer of 1964
- A campaign in the US organized by Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) that attempted to register as many African- American voters as possible in the South.
- comprised of black Mississippians and more than 1,000 out-of-state, predominately white volunteers,
- faced constant abuse and harassment from Mississippi's white population.
- program was aimed at Mississippi, where the African American population exceeded 45%, and only 5% voted. It only registered 1,600 more African-Americans.
- It deepened the division between those in the civil rights movement who still believed in integration and nonviolence and others who now doubted whether racial equality
- could be achieved under peaceful measures.
Double V Campaign
- 1941, 1942
- New activist campaign that was intended to
- fight fascism abroad and racism at home during WWII. “Double V” stands for ‘Victory abroad over Nazism and Victory at Home over racism and equality’.
- Blacks wanted to acheive freedom at home if they were
- fighting overseas for their country. Troops were still under Jim Crow law and many Blacks wanted both miltary desegregation and the end of work discrimination.
- As a result, NAACP membership grew 10x during WWII.·
Executive Order 8802
- June 24, 1941
- Signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- Established Fair Employment Practices Commission. Ensured fairness in hiring in the national defense industry. Thousands of Blacks were hired at aircraft facilities and over 400,000 Black women left domestic work for higher paying industrial jobs.
- Sparked the “Rosie the Riveter” movement.
- It was the first federal action that promoted equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the US.
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
- led by Lou Hamer
- created an interracial mississippi delegation to replace the all white delegation at the 1964 democratic national convention not successful in unseating the all white delegation, but did gain two seats at large. shed national voter discrimination in south significant because it was supported by interracial coalition,
- illustrated that segregation at its core was about power
Black Panther Party
- Founded Oct. 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
- had a ten point program that centered on black control of black communities, end of police brutality, and fair trials with black jury
- members closely monitored and destroyed by FBI’s COINTELPRO
- Joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947
- integrated baseball again; won Rookie of the year honors in 1947.
- He broke the color barrier in what was considered a “white sport”. Beyond that, Robinson showed tremendous strength in resisting retaliation to the racial slurs and hateful comments that he received. He was a hero to african americans, especially young black athletes.
- Otherwise known as The Negro Family: The Case For
- National Action;
- created in 1965 and written by Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan.
- It was an investigation into the structure of Black families in the USA, which concluded that there were many anomalies within black culture. Literacy rates and the matriarchal structure were seen to be the cause of increasing crime rates and poor academic performance among Blacks.
- Result of Truman agreeing to adopt his 1944 platform that was aimed at civil rights and integration.
- Made up of members of the democratic party that wanted “segregation forever” and believed that it was the “state’s right” to control freedom from government interference.
- The dixiecrat party eventually led to the transference of conservatives to the Republican party and Democrats to the liberal party (Republicans were becoming increasingly conservative.)
- film genre that featured stereotypical images of black urban life (gangsterism, drug culture, sex, and violence) using black directors, actors (Shaft, Foxy Brown, Super Fly, and musicians), and attracted
- black audiences
- The practice of arbitrarily denying or limiting financial services to especially to inner-city neighborhoods, generally because its residents are black or poor.
- ex. black GIs not being able to benefit from low interest loans provided by the GI bill
- seeks democratic presidential nomination in 1984/88
- black voter turnout was in record number (over 6 million)
- receives 24% of vote, most successful bid by African American at the time
- Prohibited purchase, lease, or occupation of a property by a
- paricular group of people, usually African Americans. Mutual agreements between property owners, neighborhoods, and real estate boards.
- In 1940, Majority of the properties in areas like Chicago and LA carried racially restrictive covenants
- this is why there is such a difference in the “black” parts of Chicago/ LA and the white parts.
2 Live Crew
- A hip hop group that started in Miami Florida.
- came out with the album As Nasty As They Wanna Be that had a sexual theme featuring songs like ME So Horny.
- brought controversy to mainstream rap with heavy use of foul language and explicit sexual content
- Banned in the USA, but won the case
Randolph’s March on Washington
- largest African American organization since UNIA of 1920s
- led to Executive Order 8802
- Gay-related immunodeficiency syndrome; AIDS
- was thought to be a disease that could only be given to gay men;
- gay men did not use condoms b/c they were not
- at risk for pregnancy
Charles Hamilton Houston
- Chief Attorney for the NAACP
- developed the legal strategy that led the US Supreme Court to declare segregation in American schools unconstitutional
- Dean of Howard’s Law School.
- equal opportunity employment measures that Federal contractors and subcontractors are legally required to adopt.
- These measures are intended to prevent discrimination against employees or applicants for employment, on the basis of "color, religion, sex, or national origin"