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The vestigial part of the bladder is a neonatal remnant of what?
The lateral/round ligaments of bladder found in adults come from what embryonic structure?
2 umbilical arteries
The embryonic umbilical vein is found as what structure in adults?
round ligament of liver
What are the 5 basic categories of umbillical masses/umbilical enlargement?
- 1. uncomplicated umbilical hernia
- 2. umbilical hernia with fibrous core or abscess
- 3. umbilical hernia with infection of umbilical cord remnants
- 4. umbilical abscess
- 5. enlarged stalk
Uncomplicated umbilical hernias are most common in what species? what breed specifically?
cattle most common- especially Holstein heifers
What is the difference between umbilical hernias in foals vs calves?
- Foals- hernias usually get smaller with age
- Calves- hernias get larger with age
What types of umbilical masses have systemic signs of illness?
- -cord with infection of remnants
- -maybe umbilical abscess
What types of umbilical masses are reducible? non-reducible?
- reducible= uncomplicated hernia, hernia with core/abscess,maybe infection of cord remnants
- Non-reducible= enlarged umbilical stump
- (abscess has no hernia to reduce)
When an umbilical hernia starts strangulating abdominal organs and you have outflow obstruction, what is the acid/base & electrolyte status?
- metabolic acidosis
- hypochloremic, hypokalemic
What is a Richter's hernia?
- a partial hernia- only one wall of bowel is thru the hernia ring, so ingesta keeps moving
- (abomasal fistula can form this way)
Who is more likely to get an umbilical hernia with fibrous core/abscess- a calf or a foal?
calves are more likely (up to 45%)
A calf and a foal both have an umbilical hernia with an abscess- who is more likely to show systemic signs?
- foals show systemic signs
- calves- wall off the abscess and show no systemic sings
What do you feel upon palpation of an umbilical hernia with a ficrous core or abscess?
- reducible dorsal hernia
- and firm non-reducible ventral part attached to skin
In an umbilical hernia with some of the cord remnants infected- what structures can get infected and which are more likely?
- -infected veins=ophalophlebitis
- -infected arteries=omphaloarteritis (least common)
- -urachal abscess = most common
What organism is most likely to be involved in an infection of umbilical remnants?.
- Corynebacterium pyogens
- (also E. coli, proteus, enterococcus, strep, staph)
What does a calf look like with an infected cord remnant hernia?
- calf is unthrifty
- may have another concurrent disease
What does an umbilical abscess look like? what is the treatment?
- warm, painful, nonreducible, firm (can be fluctuant)
- there is NO HERNIA
- tx= lance, drain, flush
What can cause an enlarged umbilical stump?
- omphalitis (infection of stump)
- persistant patent urachus
- harsh antiseptics on the umbilicus
What are the clinical findings of a calf with an enlarged umbilical stump?
- mass seen at young age and it hasnt changed since
- nonreducible, firm, non painful
- calf is healthy
What are some diagnostic techniques to differentiate all these different umbilical masses?
- contrast radiology
- bacterial culture
- **is this animal worth this money?!?!***
When doing surgery on these umbilical masses we usually place the animal in what position? what is the anesthesia protocol?
- dorsal recumbancy
- sedation and local anesthesia
- only use general anesthesia in complicated cases
If there is a draining tract from an umbilical mass im doing surgery on what are my 2 procedure options?
- 1.close the tract before surgery to prevent contamination
- 2. open the tract and flush for a few days before surgery
There are 2 types of skin incisions we can use when ooperating on umbilical masses- what are they? which is used for male calves?
- 1. elliptical around base of mass
- 2. semi-lunar- starting cranial to prepuce and continue laterally around prepuce- used in males
If an umbilical mass has an infection that involves the vein to the liver how do you procede in surgery?
- marsupialize the infected vein
- make a second body wall incision and run the vein thru this and attach to skin
- now you can flush and lavage the primary incision safely
What surutre material is not recommended to close the abdomen in an umbilical mass surgery?
Dont use Gut
Umbilical masses in pigs are more likely to look like what?
- -skin leasions with adhesion of hernia contents
- -hernias with adhesions and abscesses
Are pigs going to get an umbilical abscess WITHOUT a hernia?
NO- we usually see an abscess WITH a hernia in a swine
Are umbilical masses in small ruminants common or uncommon? how would we treat?
- treat same as cattle
Do we treat umbilical masses in swine usually?
No- usually they arent worth the money to repair them
When is the best age to dehorn a goat?
before 10 days
In a mature goat dehorning what is the local anesthetic procedure?
- -ring block
- -block cornual branches of lacrimal nerve and infratrochlear nerve
When dehorning an adult male goat, what other procedure should we do at the same time?
- descenting older males
- because the glands are at the caudo-medial base of horms
Do we usually bandage the head after dehorning an adult goat? what is a common post op problem?
- yes bandage
- sinusitis common
Who to we perform tail docking on and when? why do we do it?
- sheep (NOT goats)
- in first 2 weeks of life
- prevent fly strike
What are 5 techniques used to dock sheep tails?
- 1. hot docker- red hot chisel or electric
- 2. emasculator
- 3. burdizzio forceps
- 4. elastrator bands
- 5. blade amputation
What technique of tail docking predisposes the sheep to tetanus?
Where should we amputate the tail on a sheep?
- allow enough tail to cover anus
- (problem if you take too much off)
When do we use tetanus prophylaxis when tail docking sheep?
if the mom/dam has not been vaccinated we should use antitoxin when we dock tails of baby sheeps
If urolithiasis occurs in teh veriform urethral process how is it managed?
amputate the process
What are the 3 surgical options if urolithiasis occurs at teh distal bend of the sigmoid flexure?
- 1. urethrostomy
- 2. penile amputation
- 3. tube cystotomy
When would we perform a rumenotomy on a small ruminant?
- to remove foreign material
- (same procedure as cattle)
For a cesarean surgery in small ruminants what is the approach of choice? why?
- ventral midline
- b/c twins more common so this approach is better to see all the uterus- dont leave a baby behind!
What predisposes a pig to rectal prolapse?
- -short tails
- -chronis water shortage
What does balling mean in a boar (male pig)?
a breeding male pig has developed a vice to ejaculate into the preputial diverticulum
Are "balling" boars usually treated? what is the procedure if you do want to treat it?
- no- usually culled
- can do preputial diverticulum ablation
What are 3 general concerns when I do a castration on a pot-bellied pig?
- -evisceration likely if you use the same procedure as commercial swine
- -beware of restraint b/c most have orthopedic problems too
- -clotting disorders common
What can we do for canine teeth in a llama? when would we do this?
- -can remove surgically
- -can just blunt the tooth
- fighting injuries or tooth abscesses
What is the most common angular limb deformity seen in llamas? how do we manage?
- carpal valgus
- manage same as foals
When are llama angular limb deformities commonly noticed? how does this change our tx options?
- usually noticed later (bc hairy)- so less growth potential left
- therefore we might NOT be able to do periosteal stripping
- options= transphyseal bridging and corrective osteotomies
When is a llama castration usually done? why?
- 18-24 months old
- if we castrate too early the growht plates close too early
Are urethral calculi usually a problem in llamas?
no- urethral calculi are uncommon in llamas
If we do castrate a llama too early in life what can they look like?
- post legs with minimal extention of fetlock/stifles
- more patellar luxation seen