When does abortion occur after infection with EVA?
7-10 days after infection and is most common in the second half of pregnancy
If serology of mares to be bred to a shedding stallion of EVA is >1:4, is vaccination necessary?
If mares that test <1:4 on serology that are going to be bred to a stallion that sheds EVA, what is the protocol?
mares need to be vaccinated 3 weeks prior to breeding and isolated. isolated again for 21 days when bred to stallion
In N. America, the most common non-host adapted serovars of Leptospirosis that cause abortion in mares are?
kennewicki and grippotyphosa
What is considered the host adapted species of leptospira in horses?
When do Leptospirosis cause abortions (and also stillbirths, and premature live births)?
late fall, wet conditions, and usually >6 months gestation
Is there a leptospirosis vaccine approved for horses?
What is the organism that causes Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)?
What are the clinical signs of CEM in the stallion?
subclinical, persists for months to years in repro tract (urethral fossa and associated sinus)
What are the clinical signs of CEM in the mare?
purulent discharge from vulva, severe endometrial inflammation, short cycles, conception failure
How is CEM transmissed?
mating (direct), teasing (direct or indirect), AI, indirectly via hands/equipment
What harbors the CEM infection in the mare?
Is there a vaccine available for CEM?
What causes a venereal disease called Dourine (eradicated in N. america and Europe)?
What are different pathological changes that can happen in the endometrium?
endometritis, periglandular fibrosis and nesting of endometrial glands, lymphatic lacunae, edema, atrophy of endometrium
When is atrophy of the endometrium in the mare normal?
Which category of the Kenney grading system is abnormal, 50-80% chance of carrying foal to term, has inflammation thats treatable?
Which category of the Kenney grading system is abnormal, 10-50% chance of carrying foal to term, has periglandular fibrosis or lymphatic lacunae, and because fibrosis is irreversible there is a hx of infertility and difficulty with carrying foal to term?
What is the treatment for endometritis currently used?
remove intrauterine fluids after breeding (uterine lavage, oxytocin, cloprostenol) and antibiotics
What is an accumulation of large quantities of inflammatory exudates in the uterine lumen causing uterine distension?
What is the treatment of pyometra in the mare?
luteolysis, lavage of uterine lumen, antibiotics, nonresponsive cases are treated by hysterectomy
What is the most common tumor of the ovary in the mare?
granulosa cell tumor
What is the ultrasound appearance of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary in the mare?
What are diagnostic indicators that you are probably dealing with a granulosa cell tumor in the mare?
testosterone high in 50% of cases, inhibin often elevated, progesterone low
What is a congenital abnormality in the mare that causes infertility, mares are XO, small for their age, and no treatment?
What are the components of a stallion BSE?
ID, history, PE, test for viral dz, semen collection and evaluation of libido, mating ability, semen evaluation
Why are 2 ejaculates collected when stallions are evaluated?
second ejaculate has 50-60% sperm #'s of first, if ratio is typical then ejaculates are "representative"
What are organisms that are concerns of a theriogenologist when it comes to stallion venereal dz?
What is the accessory sex gland in the stallion that is most often involved in bacterial infectious conditions?
What accessory sex gland can become blocked with dead sperm or epithelial cells preventing normal ejaculation?
ductus deferens (ampulla)
What is a traumatic rupture of SQ vessels b/t skin and tunica albuginea that is the result of being kicked by mare, bent penis, mating a mare w/ caslicks suture in place, erection w/ stallion ring, or laceration?
In the case of penile paralysis in the stallion due to phenothiazine tranquilizer admin of what w/in the first few hours may be helpful?
8mg benzotropine mesylate
What is the most common neoplasia of the penis in the stallion?
squamous cell carcinoma
Lesions of habronemiasis are most often where on the penis of the stallion?
preputial ring and urethra
What can be caused by lesions in urethra or surface lesions, can compromise fertility (b/c spermicidal), can be caused by SCC and also tears in the perineal urethra (b/c communication w/ corpus spongiosum penis)?
What are different locations of retained testis in the stallion?