Therio final, II

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HLW
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187546
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Therio final, II
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2012-12-06 10:38:37
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Therio final, II
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  1. What is recommended to prevent EHV-1 abortion in mares?
    vaccination (5, 7, and 9 months), proper management (isolation of preg mares from incoming horses)
  2. What causes Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)?
    arterivirus, family togaviridae
  3. Who is the carrier for EVA?
    the stallion (can be a carrier for weeks to years)
  4. How is EVA transmissed?
    mating, teasing, AI, contact w/ aborted fetus, respiratory
  5. EVA has tropism for which cells?
    endothelial cells (causes edema and hemorrhage)
  6. When does abortion occur after infection with EVA?
    7-10 days after infection and is most common in the second half of pregnancy
  7. If serology of mares to be bred to a shedding stallion of EVA is >1:4, is vaccination necessary?
    no
  8. If mares that test <1:4 on serology that are going to be bred to a stallion that sheds EVA, what is the protocol?
    mares need to be vaccinated 3 weeks prior to breeding and isolated. isolated again for 21 days when bred to stallion
  9. In N. America, the most common non-host adapted serovars of Leptospirosis that cause abortion in mares are?
    kennewicki and grippotyphosa
  10. What is considered the host adapted species of leptospira in horses?
    bratislava
  11. When do Leptospirosis cause abortions (and also stillbirths, and premature live births)?
    late fall, wet conditions, and usually >6 months gestation
  12. Is there a leptospirosis vaccine approved for horses?
    no
  13. What is the organism that causes Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)?
    Taylorella equigenitalis
  14. What are the clinical signs of CEM in the stallion?
    subclinical, persists for months to years in repro tract (urethral fossa and associated sinus)
  15. What are the clinical signs of CEM in the mare?
    purulent discharge from vulva, severe endometrial inflammation, short cycles, conception failure
  16. How is CEM transmissed?
    mating (direct), teasing (direct or indirect), AI, indirectly via hands/equipment
  17. What harbors the CEM infection in the mare?
    clitoral sinus
  18. Is there a vaccine available for CEM?
    no
  19. What causes a venereal disease called Dourine (eradicated in N. america and Europe)?
    trypanosoma equiperdum
  20. What are different pathological changes that can happen in the endometrium?
    endometritis, periglandular fibrosis and nesting of endometrial glands, lymphatic lacunae, edema, atrophy of endometrium
  21. When is atrophy of the endometrium in the mare normal?
    anestrus
  22. Which category of the Kenney grading system is abnormal, 50-80% chance of carrying foal to term, has inflammation thats treatable?
    IIA
  23. Which category of the Kenney grading system is abnormal, 10-50% chance of carrying foal to term, has periglandular fibrosis or lymphatic lacunae, and because fibrosis is irreversible there is a hx of infertility and difficulty with carrying foal to term?
    IIB
  24. What is the treatment for endometritis currently used?
    remove intrauterine fluids after breeding (uterine lavage, oxytocin, cloprostenol) and antibiotics
  25. What is an accumulation of large quantities of inflammatory exudates in the uterine lumen causing uterine distension?
    pyometra
  26. What is the treatment of pyometra in the mare?
    luteolysis, lavage of uterine lumen, antibiotics, nonresponsive cases are treated by hysterectomy
  27. What is the most common tumor of the ovary in the mare?
    granulosa cell tumor
  28. What is the ultrasound appearance of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary in the mare?
    honeycomb appearance
  29. What are diagnostic indicators that you are probably dealing with a granulosa cell tumor in the mare?
    testosterone high in 50% of cases, inhibin often elevated, progesterone low
  30. What is a congenital abnormality in the mare that causes infertility, mares are XO, small for their age, and no treatment?
    turners syndrome
  31. What are the components of a stallion BSE?
    ID, history, PE, test for viral dz, semen collection and evaluation of libido, mating ability, semen evaluation
  32. Why are 2 ejaculates collected when stallions are evaluated?
    second ejaculate has 50-60% sperm #'s of first, if ratio is typical then ejaculates are "representative"
  33. What are organisms that are concerns of a theriogenologist when it comes to stallion venereal dz?
    pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae
  34. What are the culture sites of the stallion?
    urethra pre-ejaculate, urethra post-ejaculate, semen
  35. How do you culture the stallion for Taylorella equigenitalis (contagious equine metritis)?
    swab prepuce, urethral sinus, fossa glandis
  36. What are the expected results for a satisfactory breeding prospect of the stallion sperm?
    expected to produce 1 billion morphologically normal progressively motile spermatozoa in the second of 2 ejaculates.
  37. In order to meet the satisfactory breeding prospect, stallion myst meet criteria for ejaculates AND what else?
    normal testes, neg for infectious dz, no physical/mental deficiencies, no heritable defects, capable of 60% pregnancy rate
  38. What is a bacterial venereal dz in the stallion?
    CEM: taylorella equigenitalis
  39. What is a viral venereal dz in the stallion?
    equine coital exanthema (equine herpes virus 3) and equine arteritis virus
  40. What is a protozoal venereal dz of the stallion?
    trypanosoma equiperdum (dourine)
  41. What are differential diagnosis for conditions that can cause smaller than normal testes in the stallion?
    age/immaturity, testicular degeneration (toxins, steroids, trauma, torsion, neoplasia), cryptorchidism, congenital testicular hypoplasia
  42. What are differential dx for conditions that can cause larger than normal testes in the stallion?
    hydrocele, neoplasia, scrotal edema, orchitis, torsion, trauma (hematocele), scrotal hernia
  43. What are the accessory sex glands of the stallion?
    ampulla, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral gland
  44. What is the accessory sex gland in the stallion that is most often involved in bacterial infectious conditions?
    seminal vesicles
  45. What accessory sex gland can become blocked with dead sperm or epithelial cells preventing normal ejaculation?
    ductus deferens (ampulla)
  46. What is a traumatic rupture of SQ vessels b/t skin and tunica albuginea that is the result of being kicked by mare, bent penis, mating a mare w/ caslicks suture in place, erection w/ stallion ring, or laceration?
    hematoma
  47. In the case of penile paralysis in the stallion due to phenothiazine tranquilizer admin of what w/in the first few hours may be helpful?
    8mg benzotropine mesylate
  48. What is the most common neoplasia of the penis in the stallion?
    squamous cell carcinoma
  49. Lesions of habronemiasis are most often where on the penis of the stallion?
    preputial ring and urethra
  50. What can be caused by lesions in urethra or surface lesions, can compromise fertility (b/c spermicidal), can be caused by SCC and also tears in the perineal urethra (b/c communication w/ corpus spongiosum penis)?
    hemospermia
  51. What are different locations of retained testis in the stallion?
    complete abdominal cryptorchid, partial abdominal cryptorchid, inguinal cryptorchid (high flanker), or ectopic testis
  52. In what breed of horse is cryptorchidism most prevalent?
    percherons
  53. If a testosterone assay has a concentration of >100 picograms/ml what does this mean?
    testicular tissue present
  54. Is estrogen sulfate assay has a concentration >400 picrograms/ml what does this mean?
    testicular tissue present

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