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What are the four places respiration takes place throughout the body
- external repiration
- internal respiration
- cellular respiration
what are the 6 functions of repiration
- acts as passageway for respiration
- regulation of blood pH
- moistens and warms incoming air
- voice production
defenses of the respiratory system
- mucus - entraps microorganisms
- cilia - push micro organisms and mucus up and out of respiratory tract
- cough reflexes
what are the two divisions of the respiratory tract
what are the components of the upper respiratory tract
- nose, nasal passagways
what are the components of the lower respiratory tract
- bronchi and bronchioles
Upper respiratory tract:
nose and nasal passages consist of?
- external nose
- nasal cavity
- hard palate : floor of the nasal cavity
- nasal septum : partition dividing cavity
Upper respiratory tract: pharynx (3 regions)
- common opening for digestive and respiratory systems
- three regions are :
- nasopharynx - lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Mucus and debris is swallowed. openings of escuchian tubes. floor is the soft palate
- lined with moist stratified epithelium
- laryngopharynx - lined with moist stratified epithilium
Lower respiratory tract: larynx (4)
- unpaired cartilages
- thyroid: largest, adams apple
- cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx
- epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near the base of the tongue
- true vocal chords: sound production. Opening between is the glottis
what are the functions of the larynx (4)
- maintain an open passageway for air movement: thyroid and cricoid cartilages
- epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx
- vocal folds are primary source of sound preduction
- the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium traps debris, preventing thier entry into the lower respiratory tract
Lower respiratory tract: trachea functions (5)
- transports air to and fromn lungs
- membranous tube of dense regular connective tissue and smooth muscle
- supported by 15-20 hyaline cartilage C shaped rings open posteriorly
- posterior surface is elastic ligamentous membrane and bundles of smooth muscle called the trachealis
- contracts during coughing
what does the tracheobronchial tree consist of
trachea to terminal bronchioles which is ciliated for the removal of debris
what does the trachea divide into
two primary bronchi
the primary bronchi devide into?
secondary bronchi (one/lobe)
the secondary bronchi devide into ?
the tertiary bronchi define what?
the tertiary further devide into what?
bronchioles then finally devide into what?
what is the respiratory zone?
site for gas exchange
respitory bronchioles branch from where?
respiratory bronchioles have a lot of alveoli, True or False
what does the respitory bronchioles give rise to?
aveolar ducts which have more alvioli
alveolar ducts end as what
are there cilia in the respiratory bronchioles?
how is debris removed from the respiratory bronchioles
its removed by microphages
where does the microphages move debris?
into nearby lymphacytes or into terminal bronchioles
what are the 3 types of cells in the respiratory membrane
- Type 1 pneumocytes
- type 2 pnuemocytes
- dust cells
Type 1 pneumocytes are made of what cells
thin squamous epithelium
type 1 pneumocytes make up what percentage of the surface of alveolus
type 1 pneumocytes are responsible for
Type 2 pneumocytes are made of what cells
round to cube shaped secretory cells
type 2 pneumocytes are responsible for
what are the 3 layers of the respiratory membrane?
- alveolar epithelium (simple squamous epithelium)
- basement membrane of the alveolar epithelium
- basement membrane of the capillary endothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
what are the princapal organs of respiration?
the right lung is made up of ?
3 lobes seperated by fissures
the left lung is made up of?
2 lobes and an indention called the cardiac notch
what are the divisions of the lungs