anp test 7 respiration

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anp test 7 respiration
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2012-12-06 11:57:50
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anp test 7 respiration
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  1. What are the four places respiration takes place throughout the body 
    • breathing
    • external repiration
    • internal respiration
    • cellular respiration
  2. what are the 6 functions of repiration
    • acts as passageway for respiration
    • regulation of blood pH 
    • moistens and warms incoming air
    • voice production
    • olefaction
    • protection
  3. defenses of the respiratory system
    • mucus - entraps microorganisms
    • cilia - push micro organisms and mucus up and out of respiratory tract
    • cough reflexes
  4. what are the two divisions of the respiratory tract
    • upper
    • lower
  5. what are the components of the upper respiratory tract
    • nose, nasal passagways
    • pharynx
  6. what are the components of the lower respiratory tract
    • larynx 
    • trachea
    • bronchi and bronchioles
    • lungs
    • alvioli
  7. Upper respiratory tract:
    nose and nasal passages consist of?
    • external nose
    • nasal cavity 
    • hard palate : floor of the nasal cavity
    • nasal septum : partition dividing cavity
  8. Upper respiratory tract: pharynx (3 regions) 
    • common opening for digestive and respiratory systems
    • three regions are :
    • nasopharynx - lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Mucus and debris is swallowed. openings of escuchian tubes. floor is the soft palate 
    • Oropharynx:
    • lined with moist stratified epithelium
    • laryngopharynx - lined with moist stratified epithilium
  9. Lower respiratory tract: larynx (4)
    • unpaired cartilages
    • thyroid: largest, adams apple
    • cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx
    • epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near the base of the tongue
    • true vocal chords: sound production. Opening between is the glottis
  10. what are the functions of the larynx (4)
    • maintain an open passageway for air movement: thyroid and cricoid cartilages
    • epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx 
    • vocal folds are primary source of sound preduction 
    • the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium traps debris, preventing thier entry into the lower respiratory tract
  11. Lower respiratory tract: trachea functions (5)
    • transports air to and fromn lungs
    • membranous tube of dense regular connective tissue and smooth muscle
    • supported by 15-20 hyaline cartilage C shaped rings open posteriorly
    • posterior surface is elastic ligamentous membrane and bundles of smooth muscle called the trachealis
    • contracts during coughing
  12. what does the tracheobronchial tree consist of 
    trachea to terminal bronchioles which is ciliated for the removal of debris
  13. what does the trachea divide into
    two primary bronchi
  14. the primary bronchi devide into? 
    secondary bronchi (one/lobe)
  15. the secondary bronchi devide into ?
    tertiary bronchi
  16. the tertiary bronchi define what?
    bronchopulmonary segments
  17. the tertiary further devide into what?
    bronchioles
  18. bronchioles then finally devide into what?
    terminal bronchioles
  19. what is the respiratory zone?
    site for gas exchange
  20. respitory bronchioles branch from where?
    terminal bronchioles
  21. respiratory bronchioles have a lot of alveoli, True or False
    false
  22. what does the respitory bronchioles give rise to?
    aveolar ducts which have more alvioli
  23. alveolar ducts end as what
    alveolar sacs
  24. are there cilia in the respiratory bronchioles?
    no 
  25. how is debris removed from the respiratory bronchioles
    its removed by microphages
  26. where does the microphages move debris?
    into nearby lymphacytes or into terminal bronchioles
  27. what are the 3 types of cells in the respiratory membrane
    • Type 1 pneumocytes
    • type 2 pnuemocytes
    • dust cells
  28. Type 1 pneumocytes are made of what cells
    thin squamous epithelium
  29. type 1 pneumocytes make up what percentage of the surface of alveolus
    90%
  30. type 1 pneumocytes are responsible for
    gas exchange
  31. Type 2 pneumocytes are made of what cells
    round to cube shaped secretory cells
  32. type 2 pneumocytes are responsible for
    producing surfactant
  33. what are the 3 layers of the respiratory membrane?
    • alveolar epithelium (simple squamous epithelium)
    • basement membrane of the alveolar epithelium
    • basement membrane of the capillary endothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
  34. what are the princapal organs of respiration?
    lungs (2)
  35. the right lung is made up of ?
    3 lobes seperated by fissures
  36. the left lung is made up of?
    2 lobes and an indention called the cardiac notch
  37. what are the divisions of the lungs
    • lobes
    • lobules

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