Diseases Exam 2 - Descriptions

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andreakristin807
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Diseases Exam 2 - Descriptions
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2012-12-06 13:01:01
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Micro Diseases
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Disease Descriptions
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  1. streptococcal pharyngitis
    beta-hemolytic, streptokinase lyse fibrin clots,streptolysins enzymes cytotoxic to tissues, RBC and WBC, complication otitismedia, Tx penicillin
  2. laryngitis
    affects our ability to speak. This infection iscaused by bacteria
  3. tonsillitis
    inflamed tonsils
  4. sinusitis
    • infected sinus with a heavy nasal discharge
    • They have a mucous membrane lining that is continuous with that of the nasal cavity
    • When a sinus becomes infected with an organism
  5. epiglottitis
    • inflammation of the epiglottis
    • The epiglottis is a flaplike structure of cartilage that prevents ingested material from entering the larynx
  6. scarlet fever
    toxin causes pinkish red skin rash, high fever,strawberry like tongue appearance. self-limiting
  7. otitis media
    frequent complication of common cold or upperrespiratory infection
  8. common cold
    viral, most prevalent disease in humans, 50 % rhinovirus, 20 % coronavirus; symptoms, nasal secretion,congestion, sneezing. rhinovirus likes temp slightly below normal body temp. single virus can cause infection; antibiotics useless (virus)
  9. tuberculosis
    cell wallinundated with lipids, resistant to stresses; Tx. streptomycin,antimycobacterials; Dx tuberculin skin test, ( infected individuals respondwith cell mediated immunity, T cells)
  10. bacterial pneumonias
    usually named for portions of the lower resp.tract infected,
  11. pneumococcal pneumonia
    bronchi and alveoli, high fever, breathingdifficulty, chest pain, lungs have reddish appearance. lungs fill with fluid.rust colored sputum .
  12. haemophilus influenza pneumonia
    common among patients with alcoholism, poornutrition, cancer, diabetes;
  13. viral pneumonia
    can occur as complications of the flu, measles,chickenpox; hard to identify
  14. influenza
    fever, chills, muscle aches; flu is ever changing due to antigenic shifts ( see slide 42); Tx, vaccine

    • type A viruses responsible for major pandemics
    • type B more geographically limited and milder
  15. histoplasmosis
    dimorphic yeastlike fungus, invades andmultiplies in macrophages
  16. pneumocystis pneumonia
    normally found in healthy lungs; becomesopportunistic with immunocompromised individuals, primary indicator of AIDS
  17. Dental Caries
  18. Symptoms: Discolored or hole in tooth emamal
    • Tx: Remove decay
    • Prevention: Brushing, flossing, decrease sucrose intake
  19. Discolored or hole in tooth emamalRemove decayBrushing, flossing, decrease sucrose intake
  20. Symptoms: Bleeding gums, pus in pockets
    • Tx: Remove damaged area; antibiotics
    • Prevention: Plaque removal
  21. Staphylococcal food poisoning
  22. Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Intoxication/infection: Intoxication (enterotoxin)
    • Dx test: Phage typing
    • Tx: none
  23. Shigellosis
    • Symtpoms: Tissue damage and dysentery
    • Intox/Infect: Infection (endotoxin)
    • Dx: Isolation of bacteria
    • Tx: Quinolones
  24. Salmonellosis
    • Symptoms: Nausea and diarrhea
    • Intox/infect: Infection (endotoxin)
    • Dx: Isolation of bacteria
    • Tx: Oral rehydration
  25. Typhoid Fever
    • Symptoms: Dysentery hemmorrhagic colitis, hemoltyic uremia
    • Intox/Infect: Infection (endotoxin)
    • Dx: isolation of bacteria
    • Tx: cephalosporin
  26. Cholera
  27. Symptoms:Diarrhea w/ deydration
    • Intox/Infect: Cholera toxin
    • Dx: Isolation of bacteria
    • Tx: Rehydration, doxycycline
  28. E coli gastroenteritis
  29. symptoms: Dysentery hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremia
    • Intoxinfect: Infection
    • Dx: Isolation
    • Tx: Intravenous rehydration, monitor serum electrolytes
  30. Traveler's diarrhea
  31. Symptoms: Watery diarrhea
    • Intox/infect: Infection
    • Dx: Isolation
    • Tx: Oral rehydration
  32. Helicobacter peptic ulcer
  33. symptoms: Peptic ulcer
    • Intox/infect: Infection
    • Dx: Urea breath test; culture
    • Tx:Antibiotics
  34. Clostridium perfingens Gastroenteritis
  35. symptoms: Diarrhea
    • intox/infect: Infection
    • Dx: Isolation of bacteria
    • Tx: Oral rehydration
  36. mumps
  37. symptoms: Painful swollen parotid gland
    • incubation period: 16-18 days
    • Dx: Virus culture; symptoms
    • Tx: Preventive vaccine
  38. Viral gastroenteritis
  39. symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhea for 1 week
    • incubation period: 1-3 days
    • Dx: Enzyme immunoassay
    • Tx: Oral rehydration
  40. Hepatitis A
  41. symptoms: Subclinical, fever, HA, malaise, jaundice
    • incubation period: 2-6 weeks
    • MOT: Ingestion
    • Dx: IgM antibodies
    • Tx:Inactivated virus, postexposure immunoglobulin
  42. Hepatitis B
  43. Symptoms: Subclinical w/o HA, more likely to progess to severe liver   damage
    • Incubation: 4-26 weeks
    • MOT: Parenteral, sexual intercourse
    • Dx: IgM antibodies
    • Tx: Genetically modified vaccine produced in yeast 
  44. Hepatitis C
  45. symptoms: Much like HBV, more likely to become chronic
    • Incubation: 2-22 weeks
    • MOT: Parenteral
    • Dx: Test for viral RNA
    • Tx: none
  46. Ergot Poisoning
  47. symptoms: Restricted blood flow to limbs; hallucinations
    • Reservoir/host: Mycotoxin produced by fungus on grain
    • Dx test: Fungus on food
    • Tx: None
  48. Aflatoxin poisoning
  49. symptoms: Liver cirrhosis or cancer
    • reservoir/host: Mycotoxin from food fungus
    • Dx test: Immunoassay on food
    • Tx: None
  50. Giardiasis
  51. symptoms: Malabsorption,diarrhea
    • reservoir/host: Water; animals
    • Tx: Metronidazole
  52. Cryptospridiosis
  53. symptoms: Self limiting diarrhea, can be life threatening to   immunosuppressed patients
    • reservoir/host: Cattle, water
    • Tx:Oral rehydration 
  54. Amoebic dysentery
  55. symptoms: Intestinal abcess, high mortality
    • Reservoir/host: Humans
    • Dx: Serology
    • Tx: Metronidazole
  56. Tapeworms
  57. symptoms: Worms live on undigested intestinal contents
    • Reservoir/host: Cattle, pigs, fish
    • Dx: Feces microscopy
    • Tx: Praziquantel
  58. Pinworms
  59. symptoms: Anal itching
    • Reservoir/host: Humans]
    • Dx: Microscopic exam
    • Tx: Pyrantel
  60. Hookworms
  61. symptoms: Large infections may result in anemia
    • Reservoir/host: Larvae enter skin from soil; humans
    • Dx: Microscopic exam
    • Tx: Mebendazole
  62. cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder; difficult painfulurination
  63. pyelonephritis
    inflammation of one or both of the kidneys;severe back pain;
  64. gonorrhea
    attach to epithelial mucosal cells; males-painful urination with pus; females- less obvious/ more insidious;complications include endocarditis, meningitis, eye, arthritis, opthalmianeonatorum/blindness; Tx fluorquinolone antibiotic
  65. nongonococcal urethritis
    painful urination and water discharge; most commonSTD in US; symptoms, males- mild asymptomatic, epididymitis; female-inflammation of the uterine tubes, sterility
  66. pelvic inflammatory disease
    N. gonorrhoea, infection of uterine tubes mostserious; ectopic pregnancy
  67. syphilis
    gram negative spirochete; several stagesbeginning with hard painless chancre on genitals leading to serious conditionsif left untreated;
  68. bacterial vaginosis
    decreases Lactobacillus population which canencourage microbial antagonism ; frothy vaginal discharge;
  69. genital herpes
    genital lesions initially, painful urination;frequent recurring infection triggered by illness, stress, menstruation; viruslies dormant in the sacral nerve
  70. genital warts
    Papillomavirus; cervical cancer;
  71. AIDS
    HIV; damage to immune system, attacks Tcells;
  72. Candidiasis
    yeast infection
  73. trichomoniasis
    profuse greenish yellow foul odorous discharge from the genitals.

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