The main or central structure of a heavier-than-air aircraft, typically elongated and approximately streamlined, which carries the crwe and passengers and to which the wings are attached.
A principal spanwise structural member of a wing or other airfoil.
A principal longitudinal (for-and-aft) member of the framing of an airplane fuselage, usually continuous across a number of points of support
A support brace that bears compression loads, tension loads, or both, as in a fuselage between the longerons or in a landing gear to transmit the airplane loads.
A longtitudinal member installed between fuselage frames and formers to give support and strength to the skin.
A chordwise member used to give the wing its shape and to transmit the load from the fabric or other covering to the spar.
A beam or member supported at or near one end only, without external bracing.
An assemblage of members forming a rigid framework, which may consist of bars, beams, rods, tubes, and wires.
A structure that contains no internal members.
A structure that consists of a framework of vertical and longitudinal members covered with a structrual skin that carries a large percentage of the imposed stress.
Possibly the most successful aircraft ever produced. The first airliner that gave airlines the ability to make a profit without relying on government mail subsidies.
One of the most famous early stressed skin aircraft constructed by Lockheed Aircraft. This aircraft design proved to have a big increase in performance over its contemporaries and rapidly became a favorite of early aviators. Lockheed used wood as the structure material on the early models but later began to use aluminun.
The first jet transport that was also pressurized for altitude flight. The origional design experienced a couple of in flight failures due to metal fatigue.
A vertical structural member that carries major structural loads in the fuselage and is oriented perpidicular to the longitudal axis. This term is also to describe walls or partial walls that separate fuselage compartments from one another.
An airplane with only one wing
monoplane (ex. Lockheed Vega)
An airplane with two wings mounted one above the other.
A non-structural part attached to a truss structure to streamline the shape. This piecs is oriented perpindicular to the longitudinal axis.
The type of wood primarly used for aircraft structure. These treese tend to have needles leaves such as spruce, fir, hemlock, and cedar.
This form of wood is cut from a tree and dried only, No other manufacturing takes place.
One way to evaluate the health of a piece of wood is to measure its specific gravity. What is the acceptable specific gravity range for aircraft structrual wood?
.34 - .40
In order for a piece of solid wood to be acceptable for use in an aircraft structure, it must have a straight grain. What is the maximum permissable grain deviation for aircraft structural wood?
The type of wood used during aircaft construction, although not as primary structure. These are broad leaved trees such as birch, elm, hickory, mahogany, and maple.
It is important for wood to be kiln dried to achieve the desired moisture content. What is the acceptable moisture content of aircraft softwood?
8 - 12%
This form of wood consists of layers of solid wood glued together with the grains running in the same direction.
The reference softwood to which all other softwoods are compared with reguard to strength, gluing, and workability.
What is the most commonly used types of aircraft plywood?
Birch or Mahogany
Identify methods used to mechanically attach fabric to the wing rib.
This form of wood is comprised of think layers of wood glued together with the grain of each layer running at a right angle to the adjacent layer. To be used cerified aircraft this must be FAA-PMA approved.
What is used to tighten organic fabric once it is applied to the aircraft structure.
Aircraft fabric covering must be protected from ultra-violet light to prevent deterioration. What coating is applied to aircraft fabric to protect it from UV light.
Bare organic aircraft fabric can develop mildew of fungus and begin to rot when exposed to a moist environment. What do we apply to organic fabric to prevent the formation of mildew and fungus.
What is used to tighten dacron or polyester fabric once it is applied to the aircraft structure.
A by product of metal refinement that contains the fluxing agent and other impurities.
The most important alloying element found in ferrous metals. In steel, it is used in various amounts to change its heat treatment charactersitics.
A solid solution of iron with a small amount of carbon that has a body centered cubic structure.
In the SAE steel identification code system, the first digit indicates.
Primary Alloying element
In the SAE steel identification code system, the last two digits indicate.
Percentage of Carbon
A method of casehardening steel in which carbon is added to the surface of low carbon steel.
A heat treatment process used to reduce the brittleness after hardening.
A heat treatment process used to relieve stresses cause by irregular grain structure resulting from forging, welding, or casting.
A material that is alomst pure carbon derived from coal.
Also called transformation temperature. The temperature of a metal when a change in grain structure occurs.
A heat treatment process for steel resulting in a fine grained, soft, ductile metal with low tensile strenghth.
A solid solution of carbon and iron that has a face centered cubic structure.
The process of cooling a metal after heat treatment inorder to obtain specific properties.
A non-selective case hardening method, which uses an ammonium gas.
A ferrous material with a carbon content less that 2%
A type of heat treatment for alluminum alloys in which the metal is raised above the critical temperature, held there for a specific period of time, and quenched.
Solution Heat Treatment
A low temperature thermal treatment for aluminum, also called artificial aging.
Precipitation Heat Treatment
Cold Working a metal in order to increase the tensile strength and hardness.
The harshest quenching method used for aluminum alloys.
A think layer of pure aluminum rolled onto the surface of an aluminum alloy in order to increase corosion resistance.
A part formed by pousing molten metal into a mold.
A low temperature thermal treatment for aluminum alloys that accelerated the aging process. Also called precipitation heat treatment.
A material that is shaped by rolling, drawing, or forging
A material with a high degree of corrosion resistance, low mechanical properties, and good thermal and electrical conductivity.
The first number in the wrought aluminum alloy identification code indicates this.
The percentage of pure aluminum in 1150 aluminum alloy
This alloy is not-heat treatable
This alloy has poor corrosion resistance and contains copper as its primary alloying ingredient.
This type of aluminum alloy can only be heat treated three times.
This quench method is used when we need to minimize distortion and are not worried about corrosion resistance.
Made of flocked cotton fibers and used for structure joints in composite construction.
Use heat to form and set the shape of the part permantly
Use heat to form the part into the desired shape. If the part is reheated, the part will change shape again.
Black in color. Very corrosice when bonded with aluminum. It has very good compressive and tensile strengths.
Small glass balls, when mixed with epoxy it is a good filler material.
Most commonly used form of fiberglass. Known for its high resistivity.
A laminate mad from two or more layers of different reinforcing fabric.
A fabric with major threads running in both the warp and fill directions.
Yellow in color. Has its greatest strength in tension.
Twice as strong as carbon in tension and compression. Very expensive and almost exclusively used by the military.
The most widely used to-part resin system in the aeropspace industry.
A fabric made from two or more different fibers woven together.
A reinforcement material used in areas of high heat.
A fabric with the major threads running in only the warp direction.