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- • Most widely respected holy man of the 12th century; outstanding preacher, wholly dedicated to the service of God; influenced many young men to join the Cistercian order; called for another Crusade after Edessa fell, who aimed his message at knights and enlisted King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany
- • C. 1090- Aug. 20th 1153
Battle of Crecy
- • It was a battle in the early phase of the war when Edward III of England led an early campaign. After renewing his efforts in 1346 , Philip VI responded by raising a large force to crush the English at Crecy, south of Flanders. The French army, with no strategy, attacked the English lines in a disorderly fashion, while the English archers shot the French cavalry. The English won and Edward captured Calais after it. This battle did nothing but tell England they lacked resources to conquer all of France
- • August 26, 1346
- · Gregory VII
- Greatest of the reform popes of the eleventh century elected in 1073. He believed that he was chosen to reform the church as God’s vicar on Earth. He said the pope’s authority extended over all of Christendom and included the right to depose emperors if they disobeyed him. He conflicted with Henry IV over lay investiture. They had opposing views of who should be elected to the bishopric of Milan, leading to King Henry deposing Gregory VII and Gregory excommunicating Henry. Henry begged for forgiveness; Gregory made him wait three days before granting absolution.
- · Hildebrand was his birth name
- · C. 1020[or25]-may 25, 1085
Institutes of the Christian Religion
- · Published by John Calvin in Basel. It was a masterful synthesis of Protestant thought that immediately secured his reputation as one of the new leaders of Protestantism; aid those who desired to be instructed in the doctrine of salvation
- · 1536
- · Very powerful and talented monarch in England in the high Middle Ages (1272); began process of uniting all British Isles, but couldn’t subdue Scotland, which led to conflict between the two. He reestablished monarchical rights and convenes the first bona fide Parliament when he invited two knights and two residents due to a need of money in 1295
- · Greatest advocate of militant Catholicism in Spain; “Most Catholic King” who became the champion of Catholicism throughout Europe. He also tried to crush the revolt in the Netherlands and invaded England during Elizabeth’s rule. His Spanish Armada was unsuccessful.
- · Son and heir of Charles V; ushered in an age of Spanish greatness
- · Tried to consolidate and secure the lands he inherited from his dad through strict conformity to Catholicism, enforced by the Inquisition. He made the monarchy less dependent on the aristocracy; tried to make Spain a dominant power and depended on gold and silver from the New World. However, this did not help his debts.
- · Saint Catherine of Sienna
- She was a lay member of the Dominican order, Gave up eating solid food and lived on cold water and herbs with her nourishment from the Eucharist; called for the pope in Avignon to return to Rome. Claiming that she had visions from God, the city of Florence sent her on a mission to Pope Gregory XI in Avignon. She wrote him letters, when finally, Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome
- · Written by Marsiglio of Padua, rector of the University of Paris; he denied that the temporal authority was subject to the spiritual authority and argued that the church was but one element of society that gets its authority from the community; the clergy have no special power from God and spiritual matters should lie with a general church council; led to conciliarism
Christine de Pizan
- · One of the extraordinary vernacular writers who received a good education due to father’s position at the court of Charles V of France; her husband died when she was twenty-five, leaving her poor and with three kids. She decided to take up writing to make money; wrote Book of the City of Ladies to oppose man’s general view that women are easily swayed, unteachable, and prone to evil. In it, she uses strong female figures who distinguished themselves as leaders, warriors, etc and encourages women to defend themselves against these attacks
- · C. 1364-1430
- · Fundamental handbook for aristocrats written by Baldassare Castiglione who expressed certain ideals to be expected of them through three basic attributes. First, they should participate in military or bodily exercises because their principle profession was bearing arms. Second, they should have a Classical education of the arts by playing an instrument. Last, they should follow a certain standard of conduct: making good impressions, modesty, but not hiding accomplishments. Basic aim was to serve prince in honest way
- · 1528
- · A woman who had been married at 16, bore eight children in ten years, five of which survived, three of them being sons; lived in Florence; married Matteo Strozzi at 14
- · A man of Florence in the early Renaissance; Continued the work of Giotto and the imitation of nature. He had a cycle of frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel that is regarded as the first masterpiece of Early Renaissance art; with his use of monumental figures, a more realistic relationship between figures and landscape, and visual representation of the laws of perspective, a new realistic style of painting was born; his massive, 3D human figures became a model for later Florentine artists
- · 1401-1428