Bio exam

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Nlw816
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187612
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Bio exam
Updated:
2012-12-06 18:02:56
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biology
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bio
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  1. Scientific Method
    • -observation
    • -develop hypothesis
    • -test hypothesis
    • -conclusion
  2. Characteristics of living things
    • -energy
    • -respondsiveness
    • -homeostasis
    • -reproduction
    • -DNA
    • -cells
    • -evolution
    • -organization
  3. Levels of organization in living things
    • -atom
    • -moleclue
    • -organelle
    • -cell
    • -tissue
    • -organ
    • -organ system
    • -organism
  4. Levels of organization in biosphere
    • -organism/species
    • -population
    • -community
    • -ecosystem
    • -biosphere
  5. Parts of an atom
    • nucleus
    • -protons
    • -neutrons
    • electrons
    • ions-atom with a different # of protons and electrons
    • isotope-atpom with different # of protons and neutrons
  6. Differentiate bonds
    • atomic number- # of protons in the nucleus
    • atomic mass- the mass of the protons and neutrons
    • covalent bonds- atoms share one or more electrons
    • ionic bonds-atoms transfer electrons
    • polar molecule-atom with a slightly positive and negative charge
    • nonpolar molecule-form a layer of protection from polar substances
    • solvent- substance doing the dissolving
    • solute-substance being dissolved
    • aid- substance when added to water produces hydrogen ions H+
    • base- substance when added to water produces hydroxide ions OH-
    • hydrophillic-"water-loving"
    • hydrophobic- "water-fearing"
  7. Water
    • polar
    • ability to form hydrogen bonds
    • high specific heat
    • cohesion-waters ability to "stick" to itself
    • adhesion-waters ability to "stick" to other molecules
  8. Carbon
    • makes up 18% of human bodies
    • 4 electrons can form 4 covalent bonds
    • monomer- small molecule that can be linked together to make polymers
    • -monosaccharides
    • -amino acids
    • -nucleotides
    • polymers- a large complex molecule by linking monomers together
    • -starches
    • -proteins
    • -DNA, RNA
  9. Differentiate sugars
    • monosaccharide-single sugar
    • -glucose-energy source
    • -fructose-fruit sugar
    • disaccharide-2 sugars
    • -maltose
    • -lactose
    • -sucrose
    • polysaccharide- more than 2 sugars
    • -starch-found in plants
    • -glycogen-founf in animals
    • -cellulose-produced by plants
    • -chitin-found in cell walls of fungi
  10. Lipid characteristics
    • glycerides-made up of glycerol and one or more fatty acids
    • steroids-made of 4 carbon rings and side chains
    • phospholipids-made of a phosphate group, glycerol head, 2 fatty acid chains
    • waxes-made of a single fatty acid and a long chain of alcohol provide protective covering
  11. differentiate Fats
    • saturated fatty acids
    • -no double bonds
    • -solid at room temperature
    • -found in animal fats (heart unhealthy)
    • monounsaturated fatty acids
    • -one double bonds
    • -liquid at room temp.
    • -found in plant fats
    • polyusaturated fatty acids
    • -two ort more double bonds
    • -liquid at room temp.
    • found in plants (heart healthy)
  12. Proteins
    • proteins fold in a precise conformation in order to function
    • denature- to alter the shape of a protein(pH, temp., heavy metals cause)
    • functions
    • transport-moves other molecules
    • protective-healing and defense against invaders
    • structure-mechanical support
  13. Nucleotides
    • the monomer subunit that makes up a nucliec acid
    • -DNA-deoxyribose nucleic acid
    • -RNA- ribonucleic acid
    • 3 components
    • -sugar
    • -phosphates
    • -nitrogen base
  14. DNA
    • structure
    • A. nucleotide
    • -deoxyribose sugar
    • -phosphate group
    • -nitrogen base
    • B. nitrogen base
    • -purines-double ringed bases
    •      -adenine
    •      -guanine
    • -pyrimidines- single ringed bases
    •      -cytosine
    •      -thymine
  15. DNA Replication
    • takes place in the S phaseof the cell cycle
    • results in an identical strand of DNA
    • necessary for cell division
    • process
    • 1.begins at orgins of replication
    • 2.helicase untwists the double helix, creating a "replication bubble"
    • 3.at the end of the bubble is a replication of fork where the new strands of DNA are elongating
    • 4.primase-attches an RNA primer that imitates replication 
    • 5.DNA polymerase-pairs up free nucleotides to the parent strands
    • 6.nucleotides are added in the 5^3 to 3^2 direction
    • 7.DNA liguse joins the new strands to parent starnds
    • 8. end result- 2 identical strands of DNA
  16. DNA vs. RNA
    • DNA
    • -double stranded
    • -deoxyribose
    • -thymine
    • RNA
    • -single stranded
    • -ribose
    • -uracil
  17. Plasma membrane
    • proteins
    • -structural support
    • -recognition
    • -communication
    • -transport proteins
    • Glycocalyx-carbohydrate chains are attached to membrane proteins or to the phospholipid molecules
    • -serves as binding sites for other molecules
    • Cholesterol-embedded in animal cell membranes
    • -keeps some small molecules from entering
    • -helps maintian the membranes fluidity
  18. Passive transport vs. active
    • passive- no energy required to move substancesacross the cell membrane
    • active-requres energy to move substances to across the plasma mebrane
  19. Diffusion
    • movement of molecules or ions form a region of higher concentration to lower concentration.
    • diffusion relies on concentration gradient- a difference between solute concentrations
  20. Endocytosis vs. exocytosis
    • endocyotsis- moving substances INTO the cell
    • exocytosis- moving substances OUT of the cell
  21. prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes
    • prokaryotes
    • 1. no nucleus
    • 2. no membrane bound organelles
    • 3. unicellular
    • 4. kingdoms
    • -archae
    • -bacteria
    • eukaryotes
    • 1. nucleus
    • 2. have menebrane bound organelles
    • 3. unicellular or multicellular
    • 4. kingdoms
    • -protista
    • -fungi
    • -plant
    • -animal
  22. The Cell
    • 1. nucleus
    • -houses our DNA
    • -site of DNA replication
    • -site of transcription
    • 2. ribosome
    • -site of protein synthesis (translation) in the cell, carries out instructions provided by the mRNA strand
    • 3. cytoskeleton
    • - cell structure
    • -cell movement
    • -transport of materials within the cell
    • 4. golgi complex
    • -processes and distributes proteins that come to it from the RER
    • 5. Lysosome
    • -uses enzymes to digest worn-out organelles or foreign materials that enter a cell
    • 6. mitochondria
    • -the "power-house" of the cell where ATP is produced
    • 7. Rogh Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • -processes the proteins for export from the cell
    • 8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • -lipid synthesis- where fats or steroid lipids are made
    • -lipid storage
  23. Plant cell vs. animal cell
    • plants
    • chloroplast
    • central vacule

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