spartan constitution written by Xenephon (xenephobia - don't like foreigners)
strong babies, stealing food, slave = helot
military ppl = hoplite
phalanx = shields together stratagy of deffense
keep ppl a little bit hungry
Land = still the primary source of wealth
all citizens encouraged to work
Goal of gov = ppl participate based on wealth,
ruled by an aristocratic gov, but by the end of the century, it suffered from class
tensions (like Corinth&Sparta did). New $ wanted status/power, poor were
defeated perisnas at marathon
Consequences of victory of marathon:
Established the superiority of the hoplite
phalanx. Convinced the Greeks they were culturally/mil
superior. Established the value of a citizen army;
confirmed that Athenian dem could hold up under pressure.
3 cultures of ancient greece
Develops on Cyclades (series of islands in Aegean sea)
Worked w/ metal, was a spread out civ, not
concentrated. Ppl weren’t warlike.
Spread to the island of Crete
island of crete
Minoans saw bulls as sacred/important.
Linear A = writing
Society on Crete was very wealthy, had roads,
drainage systems, high taxes, well-organized
Peaceful religion, except sacrifice of children.
Peaceful, not warlike, but practiced
bull-vaulting which is dangerous.
Minoan culture (2000-1400bce)
Discovered in 1899ce, when archeologists found
the palace of King Minos in Knossos (on Crete)
Myth – king Minos fought his bros for the right to rule. In order to win, he prayed to Poseidon, who sent Minos a white bull as a blessing.
He was supposed to sacrifice it, but he didn’t. Poseidon punishes Minos by sending Aphrodite to make his wife
Pasiphae to fall in love with the bull. Pasiphae asks Daedalus to make a hollow cow in which she makes love with the bull in. She gets pregnant and gives birth to a Minotaur.
Minos locks the Minotaur away in a labyrinth.
Like hunger games, ppl were taxed and ppl were sent to be sacrificed/fed to the Minotaur. Theseus kills the Minotaur.
Warlike, Had a standing army 24/7
Record-keepers took linear A’s sounds/symbols to
spell out their own language, Linear B
By 1500bce they had spread to the
mainland all the way into Asia minor
Good at borrowing ideas, Hittites, ppl of Crete,
Built heavily structured buildings
Decline –self-destructed over population, too
Other empires collapsing – Egyptian and Hittite
empire declining at same time.
The Illiad – Arguing over golden apple, went to
Zeus, who appoints a mortal to decide which one is the fairest and deserves the apple. O’Hara goes to Paris in secret and offers him power, Athena offers him wisdom, Aphrodite offers love. Paris chooses Aphrodite and falls in love with Helen. Paris goes to Menelaus, gets into the household and steals Helen back to Troy. Menelaus wants his wife back, he is the brother of the king, so he gets an army together. Odysseus builds Trojan horse as “gift” the Greeks break out of the horse and burn Troy. Menelaus takes Helen back to Greece.
The crisis of the third century
Mil crisis – besieged around their borders
The huns in e Asia attack barbarian groups. The
barbarian groups flee to the roman empire
Group of barbarians called visgoths take refuge in
Roman Empire. They attack Romans in 378 (battle of Adrianople). Romans were defeated, shocked. Heavy psychological blow b/c the outsiders are the first to
sack Rome in 800 years. Makes Rome feel
Huns under Attila go to Rome. Pope Leo I asks to
meet with Attila, and convinced him not to attack Rome.
Pope: head of church→power in his own right.
From this point on, pope=important part of medieval hist.
Identity crisis – lots of new immigrants, not as
accepting of new things/ppl. Wave of prosecution
Money problems, lack of land.
Emperor Valerian was captured by Persians
historical origins of rome, punic wars
Etruscans settled in Italy
In 509 the last Etruscan king was expelled by
the roman people
Carthage was a rival of patrician oligarchy that
also wanted Sicily
Rome and Carthage got along until Rome became
1st Punic war (265-241bce) – Rome wins and gains Sicily and Sardinia. Carthaginians were led by Hamilcar Barca
2nd Punic war – Hasdrubal and Hannibal led Carthaginians and 32 elephants
Why Rome isn’t destroyed: roman ppl were loyal,
Hannibal won battles but the city reverted when he left, Scipio the Elder led army to defeat Carthaginians at final battle at Zama in 202bce. Rome took all of Carthage’s territory. Ensures that now roman culture will dominate the med world.
3ed Punic war (149-146bce) – completely destroyed all that remained of Carthage. Sold the remaining ppl into slavery. Plowed the ruins under, cursed the city.
Greek city states asked for Rome’s help, Rome
came in and increased their territory.
By 146 the roman republic/oligarchy controlled
the entire rim of the med.
roman society, vocab
Fams ruled by paterfamilias – head of house has power of life and death over fam.
Compete and total rule.
If a baby wasn’t promising, they were left out
to die. Adoption was common.
Dormus – the roman household
Numina – a guiding blessing spirit found in all things.
Vesta – spirit of hearth fire
all about community
cult of dionisieus - god of wine/parties
roman republic to roman empire
100yrs of civil war
People feared that Rome’s rapid rise to power
led to immoral activity.
legions - roman soldiers/roman unit of soldiers
reforms of augustus
lit (approves who he likes)
Sets up reforms: hands control of Rome back to
the senate, but rules through it. He had absolute power, just chose not to exercise it in an absolute way.
Puts effort into public well-being – aquaducts,
bridges, baths/centers of civic life, coliseum, circus maximus, road, lit
He gave his patronage to writers that he liked
3 field system
protecting weak and women
crusades ***atleast 1 q on
pope/king was nervous about kinghts getting too much power
also wanted jeurusalem
nervous about power of muslim armies
seljic turks, Saladin - had middle east
8 maj crusades
1st crusade conqures jeursalem in 1099
spread of chrisianity
Jesus's 3 years of preaching is listed in synoptic gospels matthew mark luke
originally the church was disorganized, they believed that the end was near
no universal text
393 Synod of Hippo - gives us new testiment, gives unified christian doctrine
pax romana allows safe travel, roads good so lit/letters can spread. allows for contact diffusion
organized gov, more lit, people more literate
jews divided into
very trad, follow diet/behavior laws, no intermarriage
wanted to violently rebel against the roman empire